Version: 1.1.1 (1997-Jan-14)

comp.emulators.misc Frequently Asked Questions

# Copyright 1995, 1996, 1997 Adam Roach
# You may distribute this document freely under the conditions that it is
# transmitted to all parties (1) in its entirety, (2) unmodified, and 
# (3) free of charge.  It is explicitly stated that this document MAY NOT 
# be included in any off-line compilations for which any remuneration is 
# expected without prior written permission of the copyright holder. 
# Web-accessible versions of this document may be made available only
# if they are updated automatically from one of the following sources
# no less frequently than once per month: 
#   - The semi-monthly posting to news.groups
#   - The FAQ archive at
#   - The web pages found at
# Permission to create derivative works may be granted on a per-case 
# basis. E-mail me at the address below if you wish to create such works. 
# All rights not expressly granted herein are reserved by Adam Roach.

*** As the case is with all FAQs, this document is a work in progress. ***
*** Additions, corrections, and comments are very welcome. Please send ***
*** any correspondence to me at <>           ***


  1 - Introduction

    1.1 Purpose

    1.2 What is not included
    1.2.1 Apple II Emulators
    1.2.2 Atari 8-Bit Emulators (400/800/XL/XE)
    1.2.3 Commodore 8-Bit Emulators (64/128/Pet/Vic-20)

    1.3 General Resources
    1.3.1 Tenabis Emulator Classes

  2 - Processor Emulation

    2.1 6502/6507/6510
    2.1.1 6502 Emulation Package (Source)

    2.2 6800
    2.2.1 68em [MS-DOS]

    2.3 6809
    2.3.1 usim (Portable)

    2.4 6811
    2.4.1 M68HC11 emulator

    2.5 680x0
    2.5.1 68000 Assembler/Simulator [MS-DOS, VMS]
    2.5.2 68k-simulator [Unix & X]
    2.5.3 BSVC [Unix & X, Windows 95]
    2.5.4 EMU68 [Unix, MS-DOS]

    2.6 68HC11
    2.6.1 M6811 [MS-DOS]
    2.6.2 Motorola 68HC11 uController simulator [MS-DOS]

    2.7 80x86
    2.7.1 Bochs [Unix & X]
    2.7.2 Emplant [Amiga]
    2.7.3 SoftProbe 386/SIM [MS-Windows, MS-DOS, SunOS, AIX, VMS]
    2.7.4 Transformer [Amiga]

    2.8 IBM 370
    2.8.1 PC/370 [MS-DOS]

    2.9 Pokey
    2.9.1 POKEYSND [MS-DOS]

    2.10 PowerPC
    2.10.1 PSIM

    2.11 Tia
    2.11.1 TIASND [MS-DOS]

    2.12 Zilog 80
    2.12.1 Z80 Emulation Package (Source)
    2.12.2 z80emulator [Amiga]

  3 - Operating System Emulation

    3.1 AES
    3.1.1 oAESis

    3.2 Amiga OS
    3.2.1 AmigOS (work in progress)

    3.3 CP/M
    3.3.1 22nice [MS-DOS]
    3.3.2 ame86 [MS-DOS]
    3.3.3 CP/M Emulator [MacOS]
    3.3.4 CP/M-80 Emulator [Linux]
    3.3.5 CPMDOS [MS-DOS]
    3.3.6 ECPM [Amiga]
    3.3.7 "My Z80" [MS-DOS]
    3.3.8 SimCPM [Amiga]
    3.3.9 CPeMulator/Zrun [MS-DOS]
    3.3.10 Yaze [Unix]
    3.3.11 z80mu [MS-DOS]
    3.3.12 Zsim [MS-DOS]

    3.4 Flex
    3.4.1 6809 Flex Emulator [Windows 95, AmigaOS]

    3.5 MS-DOS / PC-DOS
    3.5.1 Bochs [Unix & X]
    3.5.2 CrossPC [Amiga]
    3.5.3 DOSEMU [Linux]
    3.5.4 DOS Merge [80x86 Unix]
    3.5.5 FreeDOS [80x86]
    3.5.6 IBeM [Amiga]
    3.5.7 MDOS [Mach 3]
    3.5.8 Merge [Solaris]
    3.5.9 PC-Ditto [Atari ST]
    3.5.10 PC-Task [Amiga]
    3.5.11 PCEMU [Unix]
    3.5.12 PCM [Unix & X]
    3.5.13 SoftPC [NeXTStep, MacOS, Atari TT, Atari Falcon]
    3.5.14 SunPC [Solaris]
    3.5.15 Xdos [Unix & X]

    3.6 MS-Windows
    3.6.1 Bochs [Unix & X]
    3.6.2 Freedows 98 [MS-DOS, MS-Windows]
    3.6.3 MDOS [Mach 3]
    3.6.4 Merge [Solaris]
    3.6.5 PC-Task [Amiga]
    3.6.6 SoftWindows [MacOS, Unix & X]
    3.6.7 TWIN [Unix & X, Macintosh]
    3.6.8 WINE [Linux]
    3.6.9 Wabi [Solaris, Linux]

    3.7 MacOS
    3.7.1 Equal Application Adapter [Solairs, Irix, HP-UX]
    3.7.2 Executor [MS-DOS, Linux, NeXTStep]
    3.7.3 Liken [Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, Digital Unix]
    3.7.4 MAE/MAS [Solaris 2.3, HP-UX 9.01, PowerOpen Unix]

    3.8 Magic
    3.8.1 MagiC-Mac [Macintosh]
    3.8.2 MagiC-PC [MS-Windows, Windows 95, WinNT]

    3.9 SunOS
    3.9.1 FreePort Express [DEC Alpha]

  4 - Machine Emulation

    4.1 ABC80
    4.1.1 ABC80 [MS-DOS]

    4.2 Acorn Atom
    4.2.1 Acorn Atom Emulator [Unix & X]

    4.3 Altair
    4.3.1 Altair 8800 Emulator [MS-Windows]

    4.4 Amiga
    4.4.1 (Hoax)
    4.4.2 UAE [Unix & X, Macintosh, MS-DOS, NeXTstep, BeBox, AmigaOS]

    4.5 Atari ST/TT
    4.5.1 Amtari [Amiga]
    4.5.2 Chamaeleon II [Amiga]
    4.5.3 Emplant [Amiga]
    4.5.4 Medusa [Amiga]
    4.5.5  PaCifiST [MS-DOS]
    4.5.6 ST4Amiga [Amiga]
    4.5.7 STEmulator [Amiga]
    4.5.8 STiMuL [MS-DOS]
    4.5.9 STonX [Unix & X, MS-DOS, MS-Windows]
    4.5.10 TOS2WIN [Windows 95, NT]
    4.5.11 ???

    4.6 BBC
    4.6.1 !6502Em [Acorn Archimedes]
    4.6.2 !65Host [Acorn Archimedes]
    4.6.3 BBC [MS-DOS]
    4.6.4 BBC-Basic [MacOS]
    4.6.5 BBC-Environment [Atari ST]
    4.6.6 BBC386 [MS-DOS]
    4.6.7 BBCEm [Acorn Archimedes]
    4.6.8 BPC [MS-DOS]
    4.6.9 Beeb (1) [Linux]
    4.6.10 Beeb (2) [Unix]
    4.6.11 BeebEm [Unix, Windows NT, MS-Windows]
    4.6.12 Horizon/MacBeebEm [MacOS]
    4.6.13 Owl [NeXTstep]
    4.6.14 THE EMULATOR [Amiga]
    4.6.15 TOL [MS-DOS]
    4.6.16 XBeeb [Unix & X]

    4.7 CHIP8
    4.7.1 DOS Chip8 and VChip-8 [MS-DOS]
    4.7.2 Chip8 [MS-DOS]
    4.7.3 S-CHIP [HP-48]

    4.8 Coleco Adam
    4.8.1 ADAMEm [MS-DOS, Unix & X, Linux]

    4.9 Colour Genie
    4.9.1 Colour Genie Emulator [MS-DOS]

    4.10 CPC
    4.10.1 A-CPC [Amiga]
    4.10.2 Ami-CPC/PC-CPC [Amiga, MS-DOS]
    4.10.3 !CPC, !CPC_Demo [Acorn Archimedes]
    4.10.4 CPC++ [SunOS, MacOS]
    4.10.5 CPCEMU [MS-DOS]
    4.10.6 CPC-Emulator [Acorn Archimedes]
    4.10.7 CPE [MS-DOS, Amiga]
    4.10.8 EmuCPC [Amiga]
    4.10.9 No$CPC [MS-DOS]
    4.10.10 Richard Wilson's CPC Emulator [MS-DOS]
    4.10.11 ??? [Unix & X]

    4.11 CoCo 2, Dragon 32/64
    4.11.1 CoCo 2 [MS-DOS]
    4.11.2 Dream [Amiga]
    4.11.3 PC Dragon II [MS-DOS]
    4.11.4 T3 [MS-DOS]
    4.11.5 ??? (2) [Unix]

    4.12 DG Nova/Eclipse
    4.12.1 Computer History Simulators

    4.13 EDSAC
    4.13.1 Warwick EDSAC Simulator [MacOS, Windows 95]

    4.14 ENIAC

    4.15 Enterprise 64/128
    4.15.1 Enterprise Emulator [Unix & X]

    4.16 HP41
    4.16.1 TTCALC [MS-Windows]

    4.17 HP-48
    4.17.1 Emu48 [MS-DOS, MS-Windows]
    4.17.2 x48 [Unix & X]

    4.18 IBM 1401
    4.18.1 Computer History Simulators

    4.19 Macintosh
    4.19.1 A-Max [Amiga]
    4.19.2 Aladin [Atari ST]
    4.19.3 Basilisk [BeBox]
    4.19.4 Emplant [Amiga]
    4.19.5 MagicSac [Atari ST/TT]
    4.19.6 ShapeShifter [Amiga]
    4.19.7 Spectre [Atari ST]
    4.19.8 vMac (portable)

    4.20 MSX
    4.20.1 AmiMSX [Amiga]
    4.20.2 Atari ST MSX-1 emulator [Atari ST]
    4.20.3 PC MSX-1 emulator [MS-DOS]
    4.20.4 PC MSX-2 emulator [MS-DOS]
    4.20.5 fMSX [Unix, PowerMac, MS-DOS]
    4.20.6 fMSX Amiga [Amiga]

    4.21 Oric
    4.21.1 Amoric [Amiga]
    4.21.2 Euphoric [MS-DOS, Linux]
    4.21.3 Oric 48K [Unix & X]

    4.22 P2000
    4.22.1 M2000 [MS-DOS, Unix & X, Linux]

    4.23 PDP-4
    4.23.1 Computer History Simulators

    4.24 PDP-7
    4.24.1 Computer History Simulators

    4.25 PDP-8
    4.25.1 Computer History Simulators
    4.25.2 PDP 8/11 Emulator [Unix]
    4.25.3 PDP8/E Emulator [MacOS]
    4.25.4 TM PDP-8 [MS-DOS]
    4.25.5 Unix PDP-8 emulator [Unix & X]

    4.26 PDP-9
    4.26.1 Computer History Simulators

    4.27 PDP-11
    4.27.1 Computer History Simulators
    4.27.2 Ersatz-11 [MS-DOS]
    4.27.3 PDP Emulator [Unix]
    4.27.4 PDP 8/11 Emulator [Unix]
    4.27.5 Russian Emulator [MS-DOS]
    4.27.6 ??? (1) [Unix]
    4.27.7 ??? (2) [Unix]

    4.28 PDP-15
    4.28.1 Computer History Simulators

    4.29 Psion
    4.29.1 S3AEMUL [MS-DOS]

    4.30 R2000

    4.31 Sam Coupe
    4.31.1 XCoupe [Unix & X]

    4.32 Sinclair 1000/ZX81
    4.32.1 Extender [MS-DOS]
    4.32.2 ts1000 [MS-DOS]
    4.32.3 ZX81.PRG [Atari ST]

    4.33 Sinclair QL
    4.33.1 Q-EmuLator [MacOS]
    4.33.2 QLem [Atari ST]

    4.34 Sinclair Spectrum
    4.34.1 !MZX [Acorn Archimedes]
    4.34.2 !Speccy [Acorn Archimedes]
    4.34.3 Atari-Speccy [Atari]
    4.34.4 Elwro 800-3 Jr [MS-DOS]
    4.34.5 Java ZX Spectrum Emulator [Java]
    4.34.6 JPP [MS-DOS]
    4.34.7 KGB [Amiga]
    4.34.8 MacSpeccy [MacOS]
    4.34.9 MacSpectacle [MacOS]
    4.34.10 PowerSpectrum [PowerMac]
    4.34.11 SP [MS-DOS]
    4.34.12 SPECTRUM/VGASpec [MS-DOS]
    4.34.13 SpecEM [MS-DOS]
    4.34.14 Spectrum 48 [Commodore 64]
    4.34.15 Spectrum [Amiga]
    4.34.16 Speculator [Acorn Archimedes]
    4.34.17 Warajevo [MS-DOS]
    4.34.18 WSpecem [MS-Windows]
    4.34.19 X 128 [Unix & X, MS-DOS]
    4.34.20 xz80 [Unix & X]
    4.34.21 xzx [Unix & X]
    4.34.22 Z80 [MS-DOS]
    4.34.23 !z80Em [Acorn]
    4.34.24 ZX SP [Atari]
    4.34.25 ZX Spectrum-Emulator [MS-DOS]
    4.34.26 ZX Spectrum [MS-DOS]
    4.34.27 zx-spectrum [Amiga]
    4.34.28 zxlin386 [Linux]
    4.34.29 ZXAM [Amiga]
    4.34.30 zxspec [Amiga]

    4.35 Sinclair Z88
    4.35.1 Win Z88 [MS-Windows]
    4.35.2 Z88dream [MS-Windows]
    4.35.3 Z88EM [MS-DOS]

    4.36 TI-81
    4.36.1 TI-81 Emulator [MacOS]

    4.37 TI-99/4A
    4.37.1 PC99 [MS-DOS]
    4.37.2 TI99-4A [Amiga]
    4.37.3 TI99EMUL [MS-DOS]
    4.37.4 V9t9 [MS-DOS]

    4.38 TO7
    4.38.1 FunzyTo7 [MS-DOS, Unix & X]
    4.38.2 FunzyTo7-70 [MS-DOS, Unix & X]

    4.39 TRS-80 Models I-IV
    4.39.1 [MS-DOS]
    4.39.2 TRS-80 Model I emulator [MS-DOS]
    4.39.3 TRS-80 Model III emulator [MS-DOS]
    4.39.4 TRS-80 Model III simulator [MS-DOS]
    4.39.5 trs80 [Amiga]
    4.39.6 trs80_sit.hqx [MacOS]
    4.39.7 Xtrs [Unix & X]
    4.39.8 ??? [MS-DOS]

    4.40 Universal Turing Machine
    4.40.1 Turing [MS-DOS]
    4.40.2 Turing Machine [MS-Windows]
    4.40.3 Turing-Maschine [MS-Windows]
    4.40.4 Turing's World [Macintosh, MS-Windows]

  5 - Game Consoles

    5.1 Arcade Emulators
    5.1.1 Arcade Emulation Repository Project [MS-DOS]
    5.1.2 Asteroids Emulator [Power Mac]
    5.1.3 Centepede Emulator [MS-DOS]
    5.1.4 Cinematronics Emulator
    5.1.5 Crazy Kong Emulator [MS-DOS]
    5.1.6 Emu [MS-DOS]
    5.1.7 Gauntlet Emulator
    5.1.8 Gottlieb Emulator
    5.1.9 Gyruss Emulator [MS-DOS]
    5.1.10 Kong Emulator [MS-DOS]
    5.1.11 Mr. Do Emulator [MS-DOS]
    5.1.12 Namco's Museum of Games
    5.1.13 Pengo Arcade Emulator [MS-DOS]
    5.1.14 Phoenix and Pleaides [Windows 95]
    5.1.15 Shinobi Emulator 
    5.1.16 Space Invaders Emulator [MacOS]
    5.1.17 Sparcade! [MS-DOS]
    5.1.18 T3 [MacOS]
    5.1.19 Williams Arcade Classics [MS-DOS, Sony PlayStation, Windows 95]
    5.1.20 Williams Digital Arcade [MacOS]
    5.1.21 Williams Pinball Sound emulator [Macintosh]

    5.2 Atari 2600
    5.2.1 A26 [MS-DOS]
    5.2.2 Activision Game Pack [MS-Windows, Mac OS]
    5.2.3 Atari 2600 Emulation Project [MS-DOS, Unix & X]
    5.2.4 PCAE [MS-DOS]
    5.2.5 Stella 96 [Unix & X, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, PowerMac, Linux]
    5.2.6 Virtual 2600/Virtual VCS [Unix & X, MS-DOS]
    5.2.7 VCS2600 [MS-DOS]
    5.2.8 ??? (2)
    5.2.9 ??? (3)

    5.3 Atari Jaguar

    5.4 ColecoVision
    5.4.1 ColEm [Unix & X, MacOS, PowerMac, MS-DOS, MS-Windows]
    5.4.2 Mission [MSX-DOS]

    5.5 GameBoy
    5.5.1 Fondle GameBoy Emulator [MS-DOS]
    5.5.2 !GameBoy [Acorn]
    5.5.3 GBSIM [MS-DOS]
    5.5.4 PCBOY [MS-DOS]
    5.5.5 ToyBoy [Amiga]
    5.5.6 Virtual GameBoy [Unix & X, MS-Windows, Amiga, MacOS, MS-DOS, OS/2]

    5.6 Intellivision
    5.6.1 ???

    5.7 NES/Famicom
    5.7.1 iNES [Unix & X, PowerMac, MS-Windows, Linux]
    5.7.2 LandyNES [MS-DOS]
    5.7.3 NESA [MS-DOS]
    5.7.4 PasoFami [MS-Windows]

    5.8 SNES
    5.8.1 Emplant [Amiga]
    5.8.2 SPW [Windows 95]
    5.8.3 SFEM 1.11 (Hoax)
    5.8.4 SNES 96 [Windows 95]
    5.8.5 SNES Professional [MS-DOS]
    5.8.6 Virtual Magicom [MS-DOS]
    5.8.7 XNES [Unix & X]

    5.9 Sega
    5.9.1 SEGA-EM 1.01 (Hoax)

    5.10 Sega Genesis
    5.10.1 Emplant [Amiga]
    5.10.2 EmulatorX [MS-DOS]
    5.10.3 GenEm [MS-DOS]
    5.10.4 MegaDrive [MS-DOS]

    5.11 Sega Master System/GameGear (SMS)
    5.11.1 Massage [MS-DOS]
    5.11.2 MasterGear [Unix & X, MS-DOS, Macintosh]
    5.11.3 ??? [MS-DOS]

    5.12 Sony PlayStation (PSX)
    5.12.1 PSXMooSim [Amiga, Solaris]

    5.13 Vectrex
    5.13.1 DVE [MS-DOS]
    5.13.2 ??? [MS-DOS, Unix & X]

  6 - Hardware Solutions

    6.1 Atari Jaguar
    6.1.1 Jaguar PC Card [80x86]

    6.2 Atari ST
    6.2.1 Gemulator [80x86]
    6.2.2 Janus [80x86]

    6.3 DG Nova/Eclipse
    6.3.1 The Hawk [80x86]

    6.4 IBM-PC and Compatibles
    6.4.1 A2088/A2286/A386SX-16/A386SX-25 [Amiga]
    6.4.2 AtOnce Plus [Amiga]
    6.4.3 AT Speed [Atari ST/TT]
    6.4.4 DOS Compatibility Card [Macintosh, Power Macintosh]
    6.4.5 DOS on Mac [Macintosh]
    6.4.6 Falcon Speed [Falcon]
    6.4.7 Golden Gate 486SLC [Amiga]
    6.4.8 OrangePC [Macintosh]
    6.4.9 PC286 [Amiga]
    6.4.10 SideCar [Amiga]
    6.4.11 SunPC [Sparc]

    6.5 Macintosh
    6.5.1 A-Max [Amiga]

    6.6 Multiple Computers
    6.6.1 Emplant [Amiga]

    6.7 PDP-11
    6.7.1 The Osprey [80x86]

    6.8 Sinclair QL
    6.8.1 QXL [80x86]

  7 - In-Circuit Emulators

    7.1 American Arium P5 Emulator [80x86]

    7.2 Applied Microsystems Corporation

    7.3 Hewlett Packard

    7.4 Huntsville Microsystems Motorola Emulators [680x0]

    7.5 Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH [680x0, 80x86, H8, others]

    7.6 Orion Instruments, Inc. [680x0, 68hc11, 80196, z80, H8, others]

  8 - Terminal Emulation


  Appendix A - URL Formats

  Appendix B - DEC VTxxx Control Sequences

  Appendix C - Emulator FTP Sites/Sources

  Appendix D - Related Documents

  Appendix E - Archie

  Appendix F - Comp.emulators.misc Charter

  Appendix G - Legal Issues
           G.1 US Copyright Law

  Appendix H - FAQ Archive Sites

  Appendix I - Credits

  1. Introduction
  2. As a general note, I'd like to explain that all references to resources available on the network are given in the form of a URL. See appendix A for an explanation if you have problems.

    Additionally, the pointers to resources at FTP sites are almost never the sole place to obtain information. If you have trouble finding a file at a particular site, use archie to locate it at a different place on the net. See appendix E for more information.

    The most recent version of this FAQ can be obtained from:

    A hypertext version of the FAQ is available at:

    If you don't have FTP or WWW access, you can request the most recent version of this FAQ by sending mail to <> with the text "send pub/usenet/news.answers/emulators-faq/*" in the body of the message.

    1. Purpose
    2. Most of the questions posed on comp.emulators.misc seem to be of the form, "is there a XXX emulator for XXX? Where can I find it?" This FAQ cannot pretend to answer every possible permutation of this question, but, hopefully, it will be possible to knock out the most common ones.

      There is also quite a bit of information which could be useful to developers (pointers to specifiations, etc) contained in this FAQ.

    3. What is not included
    4. This document excludes topics that are not covered by the comp.emulators.misc charter (see appendix F), such as sound card emulation (use, math co-processor emulation (use, and the X windowing system (use For the record, there is no such thing as an X "emulator;" X is a standard. You IMPLEMENT it on a platform, not EMULATE it.

      Furthermore, this document specifically excludes those machines for which an emulation FAQ has already been written. You may wish to check the FAQ archives listed in appendix H.

      Specific FAQs which should be referenced instead of this document follow.

      1. Apple II Emulators
      2. Maintained by Alex Maddison <>:

        There is also a web page which has a collection of Apple II emulator resources. Maintained by Jonathan Badger <>:

        One final note; there appear to be a bunch of Apple II applications available from:

      3. Atari 8-Bit Emulators (400/800/XL/XE)
      4. This FAQ is posted on the 1st of each month to comp.emulators.misc. Maintained by Bill Kendrick <>:

        Note that, since the 8-bit FAQ mentions the ST line only in passing, I will be including entries for ST emulators in this document.

      5. Commodore 8-Bit Emulators (64/128/Pet/Vic-20)
      6. Maintained by Kevin Gifford <>:

    5. General Resources
      1. Tenabis Emulator Classes
      2. Sebastien Brochet <> has put together some interesting C++ classes that may prove interesting and useful to potential emulator developers. He also has a small virtual machine ("Tiny Emulator") and an assembler for that machine ("TinyAsm") available from the same page. Sebastien is using these classes to implement an Atari ST emulator.

  3. Processor Emulation
  4. A comprehensive listing of chip specifications is available for those people wishing to create emulators. It is available at the following sites (and several other mirrors, listed at each site):

    1. 6502/6507/6510
      1. 6502 Emulation Package (Source)
      2. The source for the 6502 emulator which Marat Fayzullin <> has written and based a few emulators on. He has given permission for this code to be used in non-commercial non-profit programs, so long as proper credit is given.



    2. 6800
      1. 68em [MS-DOS]
      2. 6800 emulator for DOS; includes a realtime O/S.

        I have very little information about this program, other than a report that the ROL direct instruction does not rotate the carry flag into the low bit of the operand properly (although ROLA does). If anyone can find a version of 68em dated after 1991-Jun-15, a pointer to that may be helpful.


    3. 6809
    4. Some information on the 6809 can be found on :

      1. usim (Portable)
      2. C++ class implementation of a 6809. Includes a derived class which shows processor stats in an X window. It has been tested under Linux. Written by Ray Bellis <>.


    5. 6811
      1. M68HC11 emulator
      2. M6811 emulator and debugger; it is in its final stages of development. The processor emulation provides emulation of devices, provides an execution history, allows step debugging, and has several styles of breakpoints for debugging. See the homepage for more information.

        Written by Bambang Sutanto <> as a final project.


    6. 680x0
      1. 68000 Assembler/Simulator [MS-DOS, VMS]
      2. A 68000 simulator with a cross assembler. Includes source. No information is available on where to find this simulator.

        Written by Marwan Shaban <>

      3. 68k-simulator [Unix & X]
      4. MC-68000 Simulator for X-Windows


      5. BSVC [Unix & X, Windows 95]
      6. Microprocessor Simulator (Motorola 68000, Hector 1600); it is copyrighted, but may be freely distributed. The Unix version requires Tk/Tcl to compile. The Windows 95 version does not include support for the M68681 Dual UART. Written by Bradford W. Mott <>



      7. EMU68 [Unix, MS-DOS]
      8. M68000 emulator for MS-DOS and UNIX. This emulator was developed as part of a MS thesis. It is written entirely in C++, and the source code is available. On a '486-33, it runs about 1/50th as fast as an MVME101 (an embedded procssor board). Two separate sets of source are available -- one for MS-DOS (which is known to work with the Borland C++ compilers), and one for Unix.

        The emulator does not support the following opcodes: ABCD, CHK, MOVEP, NBCD, SBCD, and TAS.

        The developer has offered to supply development documents to anyone who needs to modify the source code.

        Developed by Zijian Huang (formerly <>).


    7. 68HC11
      1. M6811 [MS-DOS]
      2. Written as a final project for university. Includes a debugger and benchmark program. See the homepage for more information. Written by Bambang Sutanto <>.


      3. Motorola 68HC11 uController simulator [MS-DOS]
      4. Program:

    8. 80x86
      1. Bochs [Unix & X]
      2. This is an 80x86 emulator which runs on most Unix platforms under X. It emulates the CPU, BIOS and I/O environment of an IBM AT compatible PC.

        Currently, the program is in Alpha, but it has an impressive list of accomplishments. It can handle 386 opcodes, and runs DOS 5.0 & 6.22 and Windows 3.1 (in standard mode). Hardware support includes Hercules graphics, PIC, timers, 1.44M/1.2M/760K floppies, and AT keyboard. Plans are to emulate VGA graphics.

        Currently, Bochs does not support networking, numerics coprocessor, or mouse emulation. Tasking & paging are missing in the CPU support, but paging is currently being implemented.

        For embedded systems developers, PC BIOS developers, O/S developers, CPU vendors, etc, Bochs supports the use of an external BIOS, and provides a compile time option for linking with an external CPU simulation environment.

        There is also a mailing list for this emulator:

          To subscribe:
            email to: <>
            subject:  (leave blank)
            body:     subscribe
          To send to the mailing list
            email to: <>
        Written by Kevin P. Lawton <>



      3. Emplant [Amiga]
      4. See section 6.6.1.

      5. SoftProbe 386/SIM [MS-Windows, MS-DOS, SunOS, AIX, VMS]
      6. This product provides full simulation of the Intel 386 and 387, as well as many common support chips such as the 8254, 8259, etc. It includes a symbolic/source-level debugger and many ICE-like features such as trace and triggers. Its targeted users include embedded system developers, PC BIOS developers, O/S developers, CPU vendors, and trainers for protected mode development.

        Versions for the 386EX and the 486 are also available.

          Systems & Software, Inc.
          18012 Cowan, Suite 100
          Irvine, CA 92714
          phone: +1 714 833-1700
          fax: +1 714 833-1900

      7. Transformer [Amiga]
      8. 8088 software emulation for the A1000. Produced by Commodore. No other information is available.

    9. IBM 370
      1. PC/370 [MS-DOS]
      2. IBM 370 Emulator and assembler for 80x86 PCs. Developed as early as the early 1980's, and updated for a variety of purposes over the years. The current version is free, and was released in 1988. Written by Donald S. Higgins.


    10. Pokey
    11. Pokey is a sound chip used in many Atari 8-bit computers.

      1. POKEYSND [MS-DOS]
      2. POKEYSND is a library of C functions to emulate the Pokey chip. The library is covered by the Gnu Library General Public License. The routines are written for MS-DOS with a soundblaster compatible card, although modifications to operate on any computer that allows for direct manipulation of the speaker voltage should be pretty easy. Written by Ron Fries <>.


    12. PowerPC
      1. PSIM
      2. PSIM is an instruction-level emulator for the PowerPC architecture. The program is written in ANSI C and covered by the GNU public licence. Version 1.1 of PSIM was bundled with GDB-4.16 (available from GNU ftp sites). For additional information (and more recent beta releases) see the URLs listed below.

        Written by Andrew Cagney <>.


        Source Code Updates:

    13. Tia
    14. Tia was the sound chip used in the Atari 2600.

      1. TIASND [MS-DOS]
      2. TIASND is a library of C functions to emulate the Tia chip. The library is covered by the Gnu Library General Public License. The routines are written for MS-DOS with a soundblaster compatible card, although modifications to operate on any computer that allows for direct manipulation of the speaker voltage should be pretty easy. Written by Ron Fries <>.


    15. Zilog 80
      1. Z80 Emulation Package (Source)
      2. The source for the Z80 emulator which Marat Fayzullin <> has written and based a few emulators on. He has given permission for this code to be used in non-commercial non-profit programs, so long as proper credit is given.

        Marcel de Kogel <> has released his modified version of this code, as well; it has been optimised for gcc-x86, as well as having some additional changes.



        MS-DOS Optimised version homepage:

      3. z80emulator [Amiga]
      4. The package emulates a Z80 (slowly) and also contains a complete Z80 cross development system.

        Written by Phil. [No last name given.]


  5. Operating System Emulation
    1. AES
      1. oAESis
      2. A free replacement for the AES that runs on Atari or compatible computers. It aims to have all the features of MultiTOS. It requires MiNT to run. By Christer Gustavsson <>


    2. Amiga OS
    3. While no functioning Amiga OS emulators currently exist, there is at least one group of citizens attempting to write one. See also section 4.4.2.

      1. AmigOS (work in progress)
      2. This is a voluntary project to port an Amiga OS compatible operating system to other platforms. As of yet, no programs have been produced, and the pages have not changed in quite a while. What started out as a fairly promising project appears to have stalled or died. For more information, check out their homepage.


    4. CP/M
      1. 22nice [MS-DOS]
      2. 22NICE is an emulator of 8-bit CP/M 2.2 systems using 8080, 8085 or Z-80 processors; it runs under MS-DOS. It includes terminal emulation for several common terminal types, 8080-only Z-80 only, or "auto detect" processor support. It will use a NEC V20/V30 chip if one is available. 22NICE Supports CP/M user number-to-DOS subdirectory mapping and custom keyboard maps. A facility to trap and handle 8-bit I/O references is also provided to allow emulation of 8-bit hardware not present on a PC.


      3. ame86 [MS-DOS]
      4. CP/M-86 emulator for MS-DOS system.


      5. CP/M Emulator [MacOS]
      6. Text emulation of CP/M operating system.


      7. CP/M-80 Emulator [Linux]
      8. Emulates a Zilog Z80 CPU and a lookalike to the DR CP/M-80 operating system under Linux with a 80386 or better. Emulation is performed on BDOS level, and optionally on BIOS level. Written by Michael Bischoff <>.


      9. CPMDOS [MS-DOS]
      10. CP/M Emulator based on the Z-80 emulator by Marat Fayzullin <> (See section 2.12.1). Written by Tom Burnett <>, with some code contributed by M.Sekiguchi.

        More information:


        Source Code:

      11. ECPM [Amiga]
      12. CP/M emulator with H19 terminal. No further information is available.

      13. "My Z80" [MS-DOS]
      14. Simeon Cran's Z80 CP/M Z-System emulator


      15. SimCPM [Amiga]
      16. CP/M emulator with H19 terminal. No further information is available.

      17. CPeMulator/Zrun [MS-DOS]
      18. This emulation was written originally as a bet; it was later released a two different programs by U.S. Digital. It has now been released as shareware. Two different versions are available; Zrun provides emulation of CP/M on an 8080, and v2080 provides emulation of CP/M on a v2080. The v2080 emulator is based on the 8080 emulator.

        Written by Michael Day; you can contact him at:

          Michael Day
          C/O Day Research
          P.O. Box 22902
          Milwaukie, OR 97222


      19. Yaze [Unix]
      20. "Yet Another Z80 Emulator" -- CP/M 2.2 emulator for Unix systems. This program includes a Z80 emulator, a P/M-2.2 bios written in C which runs on the Unix host but interacts with the simulated Z80, a monitor, and disk image utilities. It purports to emulate all undocumented opcodes and flag bits. YAZE is provided under the conditions of the GNU public license. Written by Frank Cringle <>.


        Patch from 1.05 to 1.06:

      21. z80mu [MS-DOS]
      22. CP/M (Z80 processor) emulator for MS-DOS. Shareware; registration is US$150 per user. This is purportedly a very accurate and high-quality emulation. Written by Joan Riff.


      23. Zsim [MS-DOS]
      24. Z80 CP/M emulator for MS-DOS. Includes source code (80x86 assembly and Modula-2), but you must register (US$50) before you can decode the source (actually, it doesn't appear to be scrambled at all, although the documentation claims it is). This emulator is free for personal use. Requires an 80286 or higher. Written by Juergen G. Weber <>.


    5. Flex
      1. 6809 Flex Emulator [Windows 95, AmigaOS]
      2. This package is a full 6809 emulator which runs the Flex operating system. It outruns the original setup on a P60. Written by Ben Williams <>.


    6. MS-DOS / PC-DOS
      1. Bochs [Unix & X]
      2. See section 2.7.1.

      3. CrossPC [Amiga]
      4. MS-DOS emulation for the Amiga. CrossPC was produced by Consultron. It was formerly bundled with CrossDOS, a utility to read, write and format MS-DOS media on an Amiga. The last version of CrossPC was with CrossDOS 5; CrossDOS 6 no longer includes CrossPC, which has been discontinued. CrossPC emulated a PC-XT with CGA graphics.

        Consultron can be contacted at:

        8959 Ridge Road
        Plymouth, MI 48170
        +1 313 459-7271

      5. DOSEMU [Linux]
      6. Emulates DOS under Linux, FreeBSD, and NetBSD. Suposedly, this is a farily robust emulation. It is rumored that this will soon be capable of running Windows 3.1.


      7. DOS Merge [80x86 Unix]
      8. DOS Merge is a text-mode MS-DOS emulator produced by Platinum Technology. The November 1995 issue of BYTE reports that Platinum (Locus, at the time) licensed source code from Microsoft to produce this emulator, just as Insgnia Solutions did for SoftPC and SoftWindows.


      9. FreeDOS [80x86]
      10. Not really an emulation, but more of a replacement for MS-DOS released under the GNU general licence. The concept is that FreeDOS will provide DOS support after MicroSoft discards the operating system. Of course, since it's a GNU licence, all source code is freely available.


      11. IBeM [Amiga]
      12. MS-DOS emulation for the Amiga.


      13. MDOS [Mach 3]
      14. Emulates DOS programs under Mach 3 as if they were running on a 80286. Can run MS-Windows 3.0, so it can also be used as a Windows emulator.

      15. Merge [Solaris]
      16. Provides MS-DOS emulation under Solaris x86. More information is available from the homepage. For Sparc users, see SunPC (section 6.4.11). Produced by Sun Microsystems.


      17. PC-Ditto [Atari ST]
      18. This is a software based MS-DOS emulator for the Atari ST. Version 3.96 is capable of emulating an 8086 with full CGA and MDA support. It can run Turbo Pascal 6, MS-DOS 5, 10Rogue, and Indy 500, among other programs. Unfortunately, it rates about 1 MHz (less than 1/4th the speed of the original PC machines), so it's not useful for any serious applications.

      19. PC-Task [Amiga]
      20. Runs 80286 MS-DOS programs on Amiga machines. Can run MS-Windows 3.1, so it can also be used as a Windows emulator.

        You can contact the author at <>, and his publisher at <>.

        Demo Program:

      21. PCEMU [Unix]
      22. Text-mode-only emulation of 8086 DOS Programs. Still in alpha phase. Works under Unix and X.


      23. PCM [Unix & X]
      24. Interpretive emulation of DOS for Unix and X. Will emulate VGA graphics.

      25. SoftPC [NeXTStep, MacOS, Atari TT, Atari Falcon]
      26. Runs MS-DOS programs under MacOS and NeXTStep. The newer NeXTStep product requires 80x86 based machines; it will not work on 680x0 based NeXTStep machines (although older versions did work on the 680x0 machines). Produced by Insigna Solutions.

        It is probable that Insigina has included the same emulation that they use for SoftPC in their SoftWindows product. See section 3.6.6 for details on SoftWindows.

        The Atari ST/Falcon version was never officially released, but an alpha version was (illegally) included on a German shareware CD at some point. It runs about as fast as an original XT on the Falcon, and about twice as fast as that on a TT.

        Insigna Solutions:

          Ordering Information:    800-848-7677
          Unix Demo Requests:   +1 508/682-7600


        SoftPC Info:

      27. SunPC [Solaris]
      28. MS-DOS emulation for Solaris. Early versions were software-only, but SunPC now requires an add-in card; it has subsequently been moved into the "Hardware" category of emulators. See section 6.4.11.

      29. Xdos [Unix & X]
      30. MS-DOS emulator designed for X (mouse works, etc). This emulator has no documentation.

        Written by Robert Sanders <>, Matthias Lautner, and Edward Der-Hua Liu.


    7. MS-Windows
      1. Bochs [Unix & X]
      2. See section 2.7.1.

      3. Freedows 98 [MS-DOS, MS-Windows]
      4. A freeware emulation of Windows 95; it is expected to run on 80386 or higher systems. The project coordinator hopes to have a release by 1998, as the name implies. This project is being run on a volunteer basis, so any help is appreciated.

        Coordinated by Reece Sellin <>.


      5. MDOS [Mach 3]
      6. See section 3.5.7.

      7. Merge [Solaris]
      8. See section 3.5.8.

      9. PC-Task [Amiga]
      10. See section 3.5.10.

      11. SoftWindows [MacOS, Unix & X]
      12. Runs MS-Windows programs under Unix with X and MacOS. Produced by Insigna Solutions.

        The most recent versions (SoftWindows 3.0 and SoftWindows 95) provide 32-bit support; as the name implies, SoftWindows95 comes with Windows 95 preinstalled.

        Insigna Solutions:

          Ordering Information:    800-848-7677
          Unix Demo Requests:   +1 508/682-7600


        SoftWindows information:

      13. TWIN [Unix & X, Macintosh]
      14. TWIN doesn't seem to be exactly an emulator, as much as a porting tool. It's produced as a library that handles Windows API calls by translating them to equivalent calls in the current OS. Unlike Wabi, however, it doesn't seem to provide 80x86 emulation. The ramifications are that, while it will make Windows programs runnable under the OSes which it supports, recompiliation from the original source code is required. Produced by Willows.

        Available for AIX 4.1, HP-UX 10.01, IRIX 5.3, Linux 1.2.5+, OSF1 3.0, SCO 3.2, Solaris 2.4, and SunOS 4.1.3.

        You must register with Willows prior to downloading TWIN, but registration is free for personal use.

        It's also interesting to note that Willows is pursuing ISO certification for an open standard describing the Windows API.


      15. WINE [Linux]
      16. This emulator, still in its early development, runs MS-Windows 3.1 executables under Linux, FreeBSD and NetBSD.



        Homepage In French:



      17. Wabi [Solaris, Linux]
      18. Runs MS-Windows 3.1 executables under Solaris. Supports OLE. Produced by Sun. Wabi is a Trademark of Sun Microsystems. Wabi cannot run MS-DOS applications; however, SunPC (Sparc) and Merge (80x86) will run under Wabi. See section 6.4.11 for information on SunPC and section 3.5.8 for information on Merge.

        Wabi operates by translating MS-Windows API calls into corresponding X calls, providing faster translation than full emulation would.

        Sun is planning support for 32-bit (Win32s, Windows 95, Windows NT) applications in future releases, but they have not announced an expected date for such support.

        Sun has also announced plans for a version of Wabi that allows the installation of Windows with the Japanese character set. Support is planned for French, Italian, German, Spanish and Swedish versions.

        Caldera (producers of Caldera Desktop, a commercial distribution of Linux) has released Wabi for Linux. For more information, see the Caldera homepage. Suggested retail price is US$199.


        Caldera Homepage

        Also, a version of Wabi is available for SCO Unix systems:

    8. MacOS
    9. See also section 4.19

      1. Equal Application Adapter [Solairs, Irix, HP-UX]
      2. Emulates a 680x0 Macintosh under Unix; this emulator maps MacOS system calls to equivalent Motif calls, much like Wabi does for MS-Windows (see section 3.6.9). Produced by Quorum software.

      3. Executor [MS-DOS, Linux, NeXTStep]
      4. Executor is a Macintosh emulator which works with MS-DOS, Linux, and NeXTstep. It was developed completely independant of the Macintosh ROMs, so you don't have to worry about hunting down ROM images to use it. Limited (incomplete) System 7 support is available in versions 1.99p and later.

        Furthermore, in versions 1.99p9 and later, limited sound support is available for the MS-DOS and Linux versions. The Linux versions run under X, although an experimental SVGALib version is available. There are a.out and elf versions of the Linux binaries.

        Executor runs at an unbeleivably fast speed, thanks to dynamic recompilation of 680x0 machine code into native 80x86 machine code for certain segments of code. More information on this technique is available on the FTP sites listed below; retreive "SynPaper" or "SynPaper.tex."

        The demonstration program listed below has full functionality, but stops running after 10 minutes.

        An Executor mailing list exists; for information, read the Executor FAQ:

        Ardi Homepage:

        Unofficial Ardi Pages:



      5. Liken [Solaris, HP-UX, AIX, Digital Unix]
      6. Emulation of Mac System 6 on a 680x0. It does no mapping of graphics calls, and requires the user to source his own copy of system 6.0.7.

        Produced by Andataco. I search of their website seems to indicate that they no longer produce or support Liken.

        Andataco home page:

      7. MAE/MAS [Solaris 2.3, HP-UX 9.01, PowerOpen Unix]
      8. MAE (Macintosh Application Environment) is produced by Apple; it runs Mac OS executables on Sparcs with Solaris 2.3 or later and HP 9000 Series 700 machines with HP-UX 9.01 or later.

        MAS (Macintosh Application Services) is also produced by Apple; it seems to be very similar to MAE, but runs on RS/6000 machines under PowerOpen Unix.

        This program uses a dynamic recompiler to speed up emulation.

        To order a copy or request a free demo, call 1-800-769-2775, extension 7675, or send email to <>. You can also send a fax to 1-800-854-0929.


        Program & Information:

    10. Magic
    11. Magic is a multitasking operating system. It is designed to be compatible with Atari's TOS. IT IS NOT AN EMULATOR.

      1. MagiC-Mac [Macintosh]
      2. Magic for the Mac. This is a commercial product produced by Application Systems Heidelberg. Since it is written in native 680x0 code, it typically runs faster than an ST with TOS. A PowerPC version is rumored to have just recently been released; its performance is described as being 10% faster than a TT.

        You can contact Application Systems Heidelberg at <> or:

          Application Systems Heidelberg Software GmbH
          Postfach 102646
          69016 Heidelberg
          Tel.: 06221-300002 Mo.-Fr. 13.00-15.30 Uhr
          Fax:  06221-300389

        Demo (non-Power PC version):

        More Information:

      3. MagiC-PC [MS-Windows, Windows 95, WinNT]
      4. Magic for the 80x86 machines. Requires Win32s to run under Windows 3.0 or 3.1. Produced by Application Systems Heildelberg. See section 3.8.1 for contact information.


        More Information:

    12. SunOS
      1. FreePort Express [DEC Alpha]
      2. FreePort Express does translation of binaries from SunOS 4.1.x to DEC UNIX 3.0 or later. It is a free program.

        Freeport requires the binaries to be converted to be non-privledged, user mode a.out files. It will not work with file or filesystem formats which are not present (or are different) under Digital UNIX, code which uses SunView, or driver code.

        After conversion, the same code runs about the same speed (or faster) on an AlphaStation 400 4/233 as it does on a SPARC 20/71.


  6. Machine Emulation
  7. In many cases, especially the eariler home computers, the operating system was so closely tied to the hardware that it is virtually impossible to emulate one without emulating the other. This section contains entries for these types of emulators.

    1. ABC80
    2. The ABC80 is an early-'80's Swedish home computer based on the Z80; it was more or less on par with the other 8-bit home computers of its time. The ABC80 has 16k RAM and 16k ROM. It was manufactured by Luxor (who generally are in the business of consumer electronics, like television sets, etc.).

      Judging from the responses I get when making queries, it was a fantastically popular computer (like the BBC was in Brittian).

      1. ABC80 [MS-DOS]
      2. ABC80 Emulator for PCs. Written by Erik Isaksson <>. Part of the documentation is in Swedish; enough is in English that you don't need to know Swedish to use it.


    3. Acorn Atom
      1. Acorn Atom Emulator [Unix & X]
      2. This emulator is available under the Gnu Public License. See the homepage for the current status of this emulator. Under development by Frans F.J. Faase <>.


    4. Altair
    5. The Altair was one of the first kit computers that could be ordered out of electronics enthusiast's journals; it was first released in 1975. It was a small, rectangular box with a couple dozen switches on it. You would use these to toggle in your program and execute it. The output was 20 LEDs which indicated various flags and one 8-bit value.

      1. Altair 8800 Emulator [MS-Windows]
      2. Altair 8800 emulator for MS-Windows. Has nifty graphics of the original machine. Also performs IMSAI emulation. Written by Claus Giloi.


    6. Amiga
    7. For a long time, there has been an ongoing argument about whether an Amiga emulator would be possible; in a decisive blow to those claiming it is impossible, a usable (and even zippy, under certain circumstances) emulator has been developed and released; see below for details. Still, from the days when such an emulator was beleived impossible, there are a few odd hoaxes and rumors.

      Due to the nature of the Amiga floppy drive hardware, it is impossible to read Amiga floppies in an IBM-PC floppy drive without heavily modifying the hardware; the Amiga can read and write in IBM format, though. In fact, as far as common knowledge extends, it is absolutely impossible to read Amiga disks in anything but a genuine Amiga.

      Another chapter in the long Amiga saga: VIScorp has purchased Amiga Technologies, GmbH from Escom. For those keeping track, this makes the fourth holding company for the Amiga. More information is available from both websites:

      This has very few ramifications for the emulator; the largest one is that VIScorp has made it extraordinarily clear that they intend to pursue blatant copyright violations, such as kickstart ROM distribution. In an official memo on their website, they state:

      "...[W]e have recently become aware that versions of the Amiga System ROMs are being reproduced and distributed without proper licensing. This is a violation of international copyright law, and VIScorp will prosecute offenders to the full extent of the law."

      1. (Hoax)
      2. A program which purports to be an Amiga emulator for MS-DOS machines has existed for a while. All it does is display the Kickstart 1.2 startup image and hang your machine. (It wasn't designed to do anything else. It's someone's sick idea of a joke.) Note that this program has turned up in a number of shareware CD collections that are otherwise reputable -- it's still the same fake.

      3. UAE [Unix & X, Macintosh, MS-DOS, NeXTstep, BeBox, AmigaOS]
      4. UAE (Un*x Amiga Emulator) is a developing emualtor of the Amiga 500/2000.

        To use UAE, you need Unix and X (or Linux SVGAlib), a C compiler, and a Kickstart ROM image (1.3, 2.0, and 3.0 all work). The current version includes emulation of HAM graphics; sprites; the Blitter and Copper chips; timers; disk drive support; interlaced graphics mode emulation; parallel port emulation (requires the WB3.0 PostScript driver); support for French, Italian, and Swedish keyboards; and joystick support (Linux only). Caveats include: Sprite collisions are not yet implemented; the blitter chip isn't emulated at full speed; some sound problems persist.

        As of version 0.6.4, UAE is moving towards a recompiling processor, which should improve performance greatly.

        A Mac version is available; it includes binaries for the 680x0 Macs and PowerPC Macs. This port was done by Ernesto Corvi <>. Any Mac specific questions should be directed to him.

        A MS-DOS version has been produced; the port is by Gustavo Goedert <GGOEDERT@MUSIC.PUCRS.BR>. Any questions about the MS-DOS port should be addressed to him.

        A BeBox port has been done by Christian Bauer <>.

        The NeXTStep port is maintained by Ian Stephenson <>.

        Believe it or not, UAE has been ported to the Amiga. Olaf 'Olsen' Barthel <> maintains that port.

        A Linux (elf) binary is available from the homepage.

        Developed by Bernd Schmidt <>

        Unix Program:


        MS-DOS Program:

        Macintosh Program:

        NeXTstep Program:


        On a different note, Brian Grier <> has developed an MS-Windows program to receive the data from the transdisk program included with UAE; it requires a null-modem cable, and is available from:

        Also, Zsolt Werner <> maintains a list of programs that work with UAE:

    8. Atari ST/TT
      1. Amtari [Amiga]
      2. Commercial ST emulator for the Amiga. The instructions for this emulator are written in German.

      3. Chamaeleon II [Amiga]
      4. Commercial ST emulator for the Amiga.


      5. Emplant [Amiga]
      6. See section 6.6.1.

      7. Medusa [Amiga]
      8. Commercial ST emulator for the Amiga. No other information is available.

      9. PaCifiST [MS-DOS]
      10. PaCifiST is a freeware ATARI ST emulator which runs on PC under MS-DOS. No public release is expected before February 1997.

        Written by Frederic Gidouin <>.


      11. ST4Amiga [Amiga]
      12. An ST emulator for the Amiga.


      13. STEmulator [Amiga]
      14. An ST emulator for the Amiga. Sort of. Written by David Addison.


      15. STiMuL [MS-DOS]
      16. ST emulator which will run under MS-DOS. Currently under development. Written by Sebastien Brochet <>.


      17. STonX [Unix & X, MS-DOS, MS-Windows]
      18. This is an Atari ST emulator that runs under Unix with X. It requires an image of TOS to run (look for a program called "dumptos.ttp" which should be on all sites with STonX).

        Version 0.6 has been released. It is available from the homepage below in source and Linux binary forms. New features include serial and parallel port support, a Unix filesystem interface, and sound support on many systems. Version 0.6 is 60% to 80% faster than 0.5.X on most systems. STonX will also now boot TOS 1.0 - 2.06 (although 1.4 or higher is needed to use the Unix filesystem interface). Developed by Marinos Yannikos <>.

        There have been reports that a Windows/DOS version is under development.


      19. TOS2WIN [Windows 95, NT]
      20. An ST emulator that runs under Windows 95 and Windows NT. This emulator maps TOS destop calls into native Windows calls to help speed. It allows direct filesystem access to floppies, CD-ROMs, and hard drives. Requires an 80486-66 or faster; a Pentium-100 provides emulation speed on par with a TT-030. There is a time-limited demo available for download from the homepage.

        Produced by Aixit GmbH. You can contact them at +49(0)241 9519230. The homepage is completely in German.


      21. ???
      22. French Atari ST emulator. It will emulate an STF/STE when complete, but no binaries are available yet.


    9. BBC
    10. The BBC appears to be a tremendously popular computer in Europe. Unfortunately, most Americans have no idea what one is -- despite the fact that a US version (with modifications for FCC approval) was produced and sold. So, in addition to the normal entries for emulators, I've included a not-so-brief description of what these little machines are. Also, there exists a mailing list for BBC emulators, but I get the distinct impression that it is primarily for developers. For information, send mail to <>

      Also, there are a few BBC Home Pages:

      Software is available from:

      A utility to read BBC tapes via a soundcard (written by Robert Schmidt <>) is available from:

      There seem to be an inordinate number of posts requesting BBC ROMs on the group. To reiterate: it is illegal in almost all countries to use ROM images which you do not own. However, it's not completely clear whether you may use images of ROMs you own but obtain from a second source (U.S. Residents, see appendix G).

      There is a mailing list for BBC emulators; to subscribe, send email to <> with a body of "subscribe beeb-emulators".

      Another list is available by sending mail with a SUBJECT of "subscribe" to the address <>.

      From Paul Boddie <>:

      "Apparently, according to folklore :-) the BBC were working with the people who made the NewBrain computer, to design the BBC microcomputer. However, they were persuaded to throw the competition open to at least Acorn. There are various tales of how Acorn, with the design of the Proton, but with no idea of whether it would work, built the first BBC within three days or so. It worked well enough to persuade the BBC (corporation that is!) to adopt it as the BBC computer.

      "The closest predecessor was the Atom, and various other machines were made as 'spin-offs' including the Electron, BBC B+, Master series, Acorn Business Computer (never released as such), and Acorn Cambridge Workstation. (Forgive me if I have missed one out!)

      "Its key features were: 32K RAM (model B - the model A had 16K expandible to 32K model B status), BBC BASIC 2 (early models had BBC BASIC 1), 6502 series processor, analogue joystick port, parallel printer port, Econet (optional?), Tube (a second processor interface), disc interface, graphics modes (640 * 256 * 2 colours, 320 * 256 * 4, 160 * 256 * 16 etc.), plug in language and 'service' (such as filing system) ROM's, and more features I could go on listing...!

      "The BASIC was later upgraded to version 4 (Master) and versions 5 and 6 (Archimedes - see comp.sys.acorn.* groups for fans of these machines) - version 6 has IEEE floating point support.

      "The Z88 and the PC, Amiga versions of BBC BASIC seem to be based on version 2, but only have restricted OS command access, and may or may not have assembler access. For emulating purposes, although BBC BASIC(86) tries to support various graphics modes, the BASIC variants cannot do enough to support a 'proper BBC' environment."

      [Reposted with permission]

      Useful BBC information:

      1. !6502Em [Acorn Archimedes]
      2. BBC emulator for the Archimedes. Provides 65c02 emulation, odd sized screen modes, sound, and simple disk I/O and interrupts. Does not handle 6522 timers. Written by Mike Borcherds <>


      3. !65Host [Acorn Archimedes]
      4. !65Host is a BBC B emulator for the Archimedes; it was supplied with RISC OS up to version 3.5. It is a reasonably complete emulation and supports all but the most dodgy ways of accessing the hardware. Images of BBC ROMs (for example Wordwise, View etc) can be loaded and used. Later versions support sound emulation (no mean feat) and allow around 70-80% of BBC games to be played.

        This emulator was developed and distributed by Acorn as an extension to RiscOS; it may not work with versions 3.5 and 3.6, though.

        You can contact Acorn at +44 1223 254 222.


      5. BBC [MS-DOS]
      6. A BBC emulator for MS-DOS machines. Still has a few problems, but pretty good progress has been made. Screen shots are available from the homepage. Requires SVGA and an 80386, although an 80486/100 or faster is suggested.

        You will have to get a copy of the BASIC and OS ROMs to run this emulator.

        Improvements in version 0.3 include VESA graphics support, limited sound emulation, teletext graphics, and a few bugfixes.

        More information is available from the homepage. Written by Tom Seddon <>


      7. BBC-Basic [MacOS]
      8. Runs on a Macintosh. Cost UKP 149 in 1991. Produced by Human Computer Interface Ltd.


      9. BBC-Environment [Atari ST]
      10. Emulates BBC-Basic and supports limited graphics. Reportedly very slow and not very compatible. No further information is available.

      11. BBC386 [MS-DOS]
      12. This is a work in progress. When finished, it will run on an 80386 or better under MS-DOS. A C version is also being developed that should work on most other systems. Written by Stephen Quan <>.

      13. BBCEm [Acorn Archimedes]
      14. Runs on an Archimedes. Executes BASIC programs and graphics. There are some buggy opcode implementations in this emulator that occasionally cause it to crash. Written by Nigel <>.

      15. BPC [MS-DOS]
      16. A completely assembly emulator for MS-DOS. This is a work in progress; when complete, it will require an 80486 or higher. The development of this emulator has been set back slightly due to an operating system installation mishap. Under development by Mark Cooke <>.

      17. Beeb (1) [Linux]
      18. BBC emulator for 80x86 machines running Linux.

      19. Beeb (2) [Unix]
      20. C based emulation of the BBC. Currently has reasonable support for the 6502 and 6522. Supports sideways RAM and ROM. Limited graphics support is implemented. Under development by James Bonfield <> and Steve Youell <>.

      21. BeebEm [Unix, Windows NT, MS-Windows]
      22. An emulator for the BBC which runs under Linux, SunOS, and HPUX; it probably will compile for other systems as well -- GCC seems to provide the best results. It has been ported to Windows NT 3.11 and Windows 3.1 with win32s. You need ROM images to run this emulator. Written by David Alan Gilbert <>. Windows port by Nigel Magnay <>.

        There is also a newer version (0.6) available; it fixes a few bugs, runs faster, and emulates sound. The new version is available for Unix only at the moment.


        Prerelease v0.6:

        MS-Windows 3.1 Program:

      23. Horizon/MacBeebEm [MacOS]
      24. Horizon includes instructions on how to make a cable for BBC-to-Mac transfer for about US$4. It was previously titled "MacBeebEm."

        Note that Horizon cannot run as a BBC Master micro.

        Written by Chris Lam <>.

        Old version:


      25. Owl [NeXTstep]
      26. BBC B emulator for NeXTstep machines (680x0 and 80x86). Runs about half the speed of a BBC. Implements all non-split graphics modes. It can manipulate a variety of disk images (read only). By Ian Stephenson <>.


      27. THE EMULATOR [Amiga]
      28. This emulator runs software compatible with BBC BASIC 2 and DFS. It runs on its own screen and allows easy transfer to and from workbench programs. It runs BASIC faster than a BBC in all cases, and 6502 assembly slower than a BBC on 68000 machines, and faster on '030/'040 machines. It stores files as AmigaDOS files, not disk images.

        THE EMULATOR supports graphics modes 0 - 7, common VDU drivers, common OS procedures, printing, RS232 I/O, and sound (except the ENVELOPE command). It does not support GCOL modes 1 - 3.

        It will not run poorly behaved programs (ie programs that communicate directly with the hardware.)

        THE EMULATOR was produced by James Associates in the late '80s/early '90s. It runs as-is on a 68000, and requires a small patch to run on the '020 - '040. It is not known if JA are still in business; their address is/was:

           James Associates
           6/7 Hazlitt Mews
           W14 0JZ

        Alastair Booker <> about the patch:

        "The best utility I have found for doing this is TUDE (available on Aminet). If you trap the MOVE SR instructions (select PRIVILEGED) and get it to return 1.3-like values on certain OS calls, it works OK."

        [Reposted with permission]

        See appendix C for Aminet sites.

        This emulator was sold as an official Commodore product at some point, but is no longer available commercially. Despite a brief appearance on Aminet, this emulator does not appear to have been released into the public domain.

      29. TOL [MS-DOS]
      30. MS-DOS based BBC emulator, formerly called "My6502." This is a work in progress (ie it does not work yet). Under development by Chris Rae <>.


      31. XBeeb [Unix & X]
      32. XBeeb is a BBC Micro Emulator for UNIX and the X Window system. It is reported to run faster than BeebEm, and can execute many BBC games. The source code (C) is known to compile under Solaris 2.5 and Linux.

        Features include support for NMOS 6502A and CMOS Rockwell 65C02 and 65C12 processors including all undocumented and illegal opcodes, Model A and Model B emulation, almost full support for the 6522 VIAs, mode 7 teletext support, emulation of all bitmapped screen modes (with a few minor bugs), full color support (including flashing colors), preliminary sound support (under Linux/Voxware), FS emulation support (using standard Unix files, not disk images), and sideways RAM and ROM. The author's compatibility testing produced about a 90% success rate.

        There is a mailing list for XBeeb emulators; to subscribe, send email to <> with a body of "subscribe xbeeb".

        Written by James Fidell <>.



    11. CHIP8
    12. CHIP8 is an odd puppy. It was never a real machine, per se; instead, it was a virutal machine implemented on several different platforms (similar to the current implementation of Java). CHIP8 interpreters were written for several machines (including the TELMAC 1800 and several kit computers, like the ETI 660, DREAM 6800, etc.). It was used primarily to program simple video games. The CHIP8 instruction set has fewer than 40 opcodes total, including I/O, sound, and flow control. Since most computers of that era were very limited in terms of memory, most CHIP8 games are very small. (typically less then 256 bytes).

      Several games are available from the S-CHIP page:

      1. DOS Chip8 and VChip-8 [MS-DOS]
      2. Future plans include a Windows version and Super-Chip emulation. Written by Paul Robson <>.


      3. Chip8 [MS-DOS]
      4. A Chip8 and Super Chip8 emulator for MS-DOS. Includes several CHIP8 game images.

        The program should be available on SimTel and its mirrors soon.

        Written by David Winter <>.


      5. S-CHIP [HP-48]
      6. A CHIP-8 emulator for the HP-48 series of handheld calculators is available, along with several CHIP-8 games. Written by Erik Bryntse; based on CHIP-48, by Andreas Gustafsson.

        In theory, these should have no problems running on one of the HP-48 emulators available; see section 4.17 for the HP-48 emulators.


    13. Coleco Adam
      1. ADAMEm [MS-DOS, Unix & X, Linux]
      2. Coleco Adam emulator. It is available for MS-DOS, Linux with SVGALib, and Unix with X. Anyone interested in porting to other platforms should contact Marcel. See the homepage for more information.

        Written by Marcel de Kogel <>.


    14. Colour Genie
      1. Colour Genie Emulator [MS-DOS]
      2. A preliminary version of this emulator is now available from the home page. It doesn't yet support graphics. Under development by Stephan Scholz <> and Burkhard Lehner <>.


    15. CPC
    16. The homepage below has pointers to various CPC ROM images.


      You might also have some luck checking in the comp.sys.amstrad.8bit FAQ:


      Many emulators and associated information are at:

      Program archives:

      1. A-CPC [Amiga]
      2. CPC emulation for the Amiga. Written by Kevin Thacker <>. A new version (2.0) is now available; however, it can be found only on the A-CPC web page.


        Version 2.0:

      3. Ami-CPC/PC-CPC [Amiga, MS-DOS]
      4. An alpha version of this CPC emulator is now available for both the Amiga and the PC. Written by Ludovic Deplanque. The utility programs listed below allow for conversion from .CPC to .DSK files (Amiga and PC). For suggestions, write to Emmanuel Roussin <>, who will forward them to the author.

        Utility Programs:

        Amiga Program (includes sources):

        MS-DOS Program:

      5. !CPC, !CPC_Demo [Acorn Archimedes]
      6. CPC emulation for the Archimedes computers. Provides CPC6128 emulation. Runs approximately as fast as the original machine with ARM3.

        A new version is available, as of 1996-Feb-13. Written by Mark Rison <>.


      7. CPC++ [SunOS, MacOS]
      8. Currently compiled for SunOS and MacOS; however, the author is working to port it to other machines. A mailing list is available for this emulator; see the homepage for details.

        Written by Brice Rive <>.


      9. CPCEMU [MS-DOS]
      10. CPC emulation for MS-DOS machines. A new version, 1.4, is now available; it includes French documentation, online help, and GUS support.


      11. CPC-Emulator [Acorn Archimedes]
      12. Written by Andreas Stroiczek. Currenly, v1.02 or later should be available.


      13. CPE [MS-DOS, Amiga]
      14. CPC emulation for PCs and Amigas. Will emulate the CPC464, CPC644, and CPC6128, depending on the ROM image provided. Requires a 80386 or better and a VGA graphics card. A 80486 with SVGA and a SoundBlaster or GUS-compatible sound card are suggested. The ROM images are included in this archive. The Amiga version (including source) is available from the homepage.

        Originally developed by Bernd Schmidt <>. Maintainance and further development by Ulrich Doewich <>.

        Program, PC version:

        Source code is also available:


        Original Homepage:

      15. EmuCPC [Amiga]
      16. A CPC emulator for the Amiga. Written by Stephane Tavenard <>. Version 0.7 is available.


        Homepage (in French):

      17. No$CPC [MS-DOS]
      18. Very fast CPC emulation.


      19. Richard Wilson's CPC Emulator [MS-DOS]
      20. Written by Richard Wilson.

      21. ??? [Unix & X]
      22. Development of a Unix based CPC emulator has been announced by Wayne Gratton <>.

    17. CoCo 2, Dragon 32/64
    18. The CoCo 2 and the Dragon 32/64 machines are basically the same. The largest differences between them involve different versions of BASIC, and a parallel port on the Dragon (the CoCo had none). There are some subtle differences as well (such as the keyboard wiring and I/O port configuration) that make the ROMs incompatible. Not all emulators take these changes into account. Notably, the CoCo 2 emulator listed below will not work with Dragon 64 ROMs.

      A CoCo mailing list exists; its address is <>. (This is also available on the newsgroup bit.listserv.coco).

      A Dragon mailing list exists; for more information, write to <>. To join the list, send a message containing 'Subscribe' to <>.

      Dragon/CoCo Emulator Homepage:

      Dragon Newsgroup:

      Dragon Software:

      1. CoCo 2 [MS-DOS]
      2. CoCo 1 and 2 emulator for MS-DOS machines. (Also emulates Dragon 32/64 machines). This emulator runs just fine on any 80x86; due to speed considerations, though, a '386-33 or faster is recommended. Includes soundblaster support, debugger, variable speeds, and disk and casette emulation. Written by Jeff Vavasour <>.

        Note that there is also a CoCo 3 emulator available from the same author, but it is not shareware. For more information, mail the author.


      3. Dream [Amiga]
      4. A pre-release of this emulator is now available from Paul Burgin's emulator page. See section 4.11 for more information.

        Developed by Sean Siford <>


      5. PC Dragon II [MS-DOS]
      6. Dragon 32/64 emulator for MS-DOS machines. (Also emulates CoCo 2 machines). This is a very slow emulation; it requires a 90MHz P5 to run at full speed. Written by Paul Burgin <>


      7. T3 [MS-DOS]
      8. Dragon/CoCo emulator for MS-DOS; it requires VGA and an 80386 or higher. This program emulates the Dragon 32, Dragon 64 and CoCo II machines at full speed on a 386-20. The emulator is still under development, but a test version is available. Written by Paul Burgin <>.


      9. ??? (2) [Unix]
      10. Under development by David Linsley <>. David is planning to produce a Dragon emulator for Unix platforms. Tenatively, his development platform will be either Linux or SGI Indy.

    19. DG Nova/Eclipse
    20. See also section 6.3.

      1. Computer History Simulators
      2. This is a large project; it includes freeware simulators for the Data General Nova, the PDP-4, PDP-7, PDP-8, PDP-9, PDP-11, PDP-15, and the IBM 1401. They are intended for personal or educational use and are provided on an as-is basis. Support is not available, and commercial use is prohibited. The package also includes some demonstration software, including RDOS 7.5 for the NOVA, OS/8 for the PDP-8, and several versions of Unix for the PDP-11.

        On an Alpha 3000/600 workstation (three years old, 175Mhz - about equivalent to a Pentium 120), and compiling at the -O2 optimization level, the performance of all the simulators exceeds that of the original systems, except for the PDP-11, which is about 75%. Of course, the faster the host, the faster the simulator.

        Information on the project is available in the December '96 issue of _The Digital Technical Journal_.

        This project is coordinated by Bob Supnik <>. See the documentation for individual authors' contact information.

        If you wish to contribute any programs, bug fixes, new drivers, new simulators, or ports to new operating systems, contact Bob Supnik <>.


        RDOS for the NOVA:

        OS/8 for the PDP-8:

        Unix V5, V6, and V7 for the PDP-11:

    21. EDSAC
    22. The EDSAC was the first practical stored-program computer. It was developed at Cambridge, and went into operation in 1949.

      1. Warwick EDSAC Simulator [MacOS, Windows 95]
      2. EDSAC emulator for 680x0 based Macintoshes; a Windows 95 version should be available soon. Written by Martin Campbell-Kelly <>


    23. ENIAC
    24. Geez. I know I've been looking for a simulator to run all my old ENIAC games.

      While it is still under development, a group at the University of Pennsylvania is creating an ENIAC simulator which will be accessable via the web.

      Written by Douglas Bellew <> and Tim Rauenbusch <>.


    25. Enterprise 64/128
      1. Enterprise Emulator [Unix & X]
      2. A depository for information about the Enterprise exists; its purpose is to provide a depository from which emulator developers can get specifications, etc.

        A prototype emulator (currently in a very early stage of development) is available off the homepage. It runs under SunOS 4.1.2 and Linux. ROM images are also available from the homepage.



    26. HP41
      1. TTCALC [MS-Windows]
      2. The documentation for this program is comletely in German. Written by Stefan Seiwerth.


    27. HP-48
    28. For information on the HP-48, see:

      A good webpage to start on is:

      1. Emu48 [MS-DOS, MS-Windows]
      2. HP48 emualtor for MS-DOS and MS-Windows. The Windows version requires Windows 95 or win32s. Written by Sebastien Carlier <>.


      3. x48 [Unix & X]
      4. X11 based emulator of Hewlett-Packards HP48 S/SX, G/GX. x48 emulates the HP48 calculator's hardware, and runs an original ROM from your calculator in an X window. You need to obtain a ROM image for this emulator.


    29. IBM 1401
      1. Computer History Simulators
      2. See section 4.12.1.

    30. Macintosh
    31. See also section 3.7.

      1. A-Max [Amiga]
      2. A commerically produced Macintosh emulator for the Amiga. The official version requires hardware for the ROMs; however, an illegal version of this program with the ROMs stored on disk is rumored to exist. See section 6.5.1.

      3. Aladin [Atari ST]
      4. This program emulates a classic (64k) Macintosh on an Atari ST. It shipped as a cartridge which required you to add in real Macintosh ROMs. There is purportedly an illegal version of this program (MacBongo) which is programmed to work with ROM images.

        Aladin supports 640x400 resolution, runs at the ST's 8MHz, addresses up to 4Mb of RAM, and works with the ST's parallel and serial ports. Starting with version 3.0, Aladin supports access to hard drives.

        Aladin was manufactured by German company ProficomP, and distributed in the UK by Eidersoft and Signa Publishing. It is doubtful that it is still distributed. In 1988, the price was about UKP 170 (about US$265).

      5. Basilisk [BeBox]
      6. A beta release of this Macintosh emulator is now available. It is based on the 680x0 emulation from UAE (see section 4.4.2). You must obtain a Macintosh ROM to operate this emulator. Currently emulates a Mac Classic only. Under development by Christian Bauer <>.



      7. Emplant [Amiga]
      8. See section 6.6.1.

      9. MagicSac [Atari ST/TT]
      10. Emulates a Mac Classic on an Atari ST or TT computer. Produced by Gadgets by Small.

      11. ShapeShifter [Amiga]
      12. ShapeShifter is a shareware Macintosh-II emulator for the Amiga. Currently, this program supports only 32-bit-clean programs; it does not support (or require) an MMU.

        ShapeShifter requires AmigaOS 2.1, a 68020 or better, 4 Megs of RAM, Macintosh ROM images, and the Macintosh system software disks.

        ShapeShifter supports color displays up to 256 colors on AGA Amigas, access to all Amiga I/O from inside Macintosh programs, concurrent Macintosh and Amiga programs, multichannel sound, shared clipboards, and full speed emulation.

        Upon paying a registration fee of US$40 or 50 DM, you will receive a key which allows SCSI driver support and hard disk partition support.

        Written by Christian Bauer <>.


      13. Spectre [Atari ST]
      14. Originally named 'Maculator,' this emulator emulates a 128K Mac. The most recent version allows Mac double density disks to be read in the ST's drive. The reveiws claimed that it had good compatiblility and speed. (Furthermore, the emulated Mac had a screen of 640x480, instead of the 512x384 that the Mac Plus sported.) Produced by "Gadgets by Small." (Although it is doubtful you could get a copy from them now...)

      15. vMac (portable)
      16. This is an effort (a la UAE) to develop a Macintosh machine emulator onto which an operating system can be loaded. Current development efforts are being done under MS-DOS, but the eventual aim is to have a portable emulator. At present, it is in an *extremely* early stage of development, and is soliciting help. The CPU is based on the 680x0 emulation present in UAE (see section 4.4.2).

        A mailing list should be available shortly.


    32. MSX
    33. The MSX is a Z80 based personal computer. For more information, examine the information presented on the homepage.

      Also, a mailing list exists for MSX discussions; to subscribe, send mail to <>, with the following lines in the body:

        subscribe msx
        info msx


      Also, many games, utilities, etc. for the MSX may be found at the following locations:

      ROMs for the MSX can be retrieved from:



      1. AmiMSX [Amiga]
      2. Emulates an MSX-1 on an Amiga with a 68020 or better. Supports sprites and PSG; the graphics emulation is not complete, however.


      3. Atari ST MSX-1 emulator [Atari ST]
      4. Program:

      5. PC MSX-1 emulator [MS-DOS]
      6. Emulates an MSX-1 on a PC with a 80386 or better. Requires MSX ROM images. They may be available from the MSX homepage (see section 4.20).

      7. PC MSX-2 emulator [MS-DOS]
      8. The same program as described in section 4.20.3 for emulation of an MSX-2.


      9. fMSX [Unix, PowerMac, MS-DOS]
      10. This package includes C sources for a portable MSX/MSX2/MSX2+ emulator, and screen/keyboard drivers for Unix/X and MSDOS. fMSX has been tested on following Unix systems:

        NetBSD FreeBSD Linux SunOS Solaris OSF/1 Ultrix Irix

        It has also been ported to the Amiga (see section 4.20.6), PowerMac and IBM PC. No decent drivers exist for the PowerMAC yet.

        The most recent verision of the MSX/MSX2 emulator (0.9) includes disk support and support for several different kinds of MegaROM cartridges. Version 1.0 is die to be released "very soon."

        The MS-DOS version is now at version 1.2.3.

        Written by Marat Fayzullin <>.


        Italian Homepage:


      11. fMSX Amiga [Amiga]
      12. MSX emulator for the Amiga, based on Marat Fayzullin's fMSX emulator (see section 4.20.5). The latest version, 1.0, includes bugfixes, speedups (including graphical double buffering), and additional video settings. :Features added in version 0.8 include disk emulation support for any Amiga block device; full emulation of the MSX1; partial emulation of the MSX2; SCC sound support; and MegaROM support.

        New features for version 0.7 include support for AOS down to version 2.0, improved Z80 emulation, SCC sound support, and several MSX2 features.

        New features for 0.8 include support for reading and writing MSX disks, support for up to 4 Megs of MSX memory, support for two joysticks, better MSX2 emulation (including screen 5 sprites), expanded megarom options, speed improvements, and several minor bug fixes.

        fMSX Amiga requires Amiga OS 2.0, a 68020 or better (68030 recommended), 350 k chip RAM, and 600 k other RAM. It does NOT require an AGA chipset to run.

        Ported by Hans Guijt <>.


    34. Oric
    35. Information about Euphoric and Amoric can be found the the following homepage; it also contains a bunch of other Oric-related information.


      1. Amoric [Amiga]
      2. Amoric is an Oric emulator for the Amiga. While the emulation is not quite complete, it will run about 95% of the existing Oric games. Current features (v1.0) include tape support, rough sound support, and partial graphics emulation. Disk emulation is not yet supported. Requires Kickstart 2.0 or higher with any CPU (68020 or better recommended). See the homepage for more information (see section 4.21).

        Written by Jean-Francois Fabre <>.


      3. Euphoric [MS-DOS, Linux]
      4. Euphoric is an Oric emulator for PCs. It runs under Linux with SVGALIB and DOS with DJ.Delorie's go32 extender. It is expected soon to run under any 80x86 DPMI DPMI OS (OS/2, Windows 3.x, Windows NT, Windows 95, etc), and it will be ported to Unix with X. More information can be found on the homepage (see section 4.21). Written by Fabrice Frances <>.

        MS-DOS Program:

        Linux Program:

      5. Oric 48K [Unix & X]
      6. Oric emulator for Unix/X. Provides graphics emulation, 6522 and 8912 emulation (including timers), tape I/O emulation using disk images, and printer output to a text file. This program also includes a utility that allows you to sample old Oric tapes and convert the sound samples into tape images. Written by Jean-Francois Fabre <>.


    36. P2000
    37. Technical information:

      1. M2000 [MS-DOS, Unix & X, Linux]
      2. M2000 is a portable emulator for the P2000 home computer. It emulates a P2000T with 32KB RAM, 1 cartridge slot and 1 tape drive. It has joystick and sound support. Source code is available. It appears in include a utility to read in P2000 tapes.

        Now supports Linux with X and Linux with SVGAlib. Written by Marcel de Kogel <>.


    38. PDP-4
      1. Computer History Simulators
      2. See section 4.12.1.

    39. PDP-7
      1. Computer History Simulators
      2. See section 4.12.1.

    40. PDP-8
      1. Computer History Simulators
      2. See section 4.12.1.

      3. PDP 8/11 Emulator [Unix]
      4. C source for two different emulators (one does PDP-11; the other, PDP-8). Written by Robert Supnik. Emulates J-11 CPU, RK05/RL01/RL02 hard disks, RX01 floppy, 1 TTY line, and paper tape. Very accurate emulation.


      5. PDP8/E Emulator [MacOS]
      6. This PDP-8 emulator includes a complete OS/8 system, FOCAL-8 and Pascal-S. It is based on code originally written by Bill Haygood.

        The simulated machine is a PDP-8/E with 4K words of memory and an ASR 33 console teletype. Optionally a MC8-E memory extension (with up to 32K words of memory), an EAE, an auxiliary ASR 33 teletype, a PC8-E high speed paper tape reader and punch, a RK8-E disk system, and a LP8-E line printer. A real time clock can be attached to the simulated PDP-8/E. For each device, there is a separate window which displays the internal state of the device. The user can view and edit the PDP-8 memory content as octal dump, assembler instructions and typed data (ASCII, integer, floating point,...). Other features of the simulator are breakpoints, break opcodes, single step execution, and a trace mode for the PDP-8/E. The teletype support uses standard Macintosh text editor windows.

        Available via e-mail from the author; written by Bernhard Baehr <>. This emulator is known to run under Executor.

      7. TM PDP-8 [MS-DOS]
      8. A PDP-8 Emultor for MS-DOS. Includes OS8. No other information is available.

      9. Unix PDP-8 emulator [Unix & X]
      10. This emulation has good emulation of the front display panel of the original PDP-8. Written by Douglas W. Jones <>.


    41. PDP-9
      1. Computer History Simulators
      2. See section 4.12.1.

    42. PDP-11
    43. (See also hardware solutions in section 6.7.)

      PDP-11 FAQ list:

      PDP-11 Technical Information:

      PDP-11 Software Archives:

      1. Computer History Simulators
      2. See section 4.12.1.

      3. Ersatz-11 [MS-DOS]
      4. This emulator is written completely in 80x86 assembly.

        From the author, John Wilson <>:

          Name:           Ersatz-11 V1.1 BETA
          Emulation:      PDP-11/34a with FPP, invidually selectable
                          extensions, runs RT-11, RSX-11M, RSTS/E,
                          IAS, 2.9BSD, Fuzzball, XXDP+.
          Peripherals:    Disks:  RX01, RX02, RL01, RL02, RK06, RK07
                          DL11 comm ports (up to 16), LP11 LPT ports
                          (up to 4), DELUA ethernet ports (up to 4),
                          PC11 paper tape reader/punch.
          Host machine:   80186 or better running MS-DOS V2.0 or later,
                          math coprocessor required for FPP support
                          (has workaround for buggy P5s).
          Author:         John Wilson.
          Status:         Copyrighted but freely distributable.

        [Reposted with permission]


      5. PDP Emulator [Unix]
      6. Program:

      7. PDP 8/11 Emulator [Unix]
      8. See section 4.25.2

      9. Russian Emulator [MS-DOS]
      10. Written by Valera Ovsienko <>.

        Demo Program:

        Full Program:

      11. ??? (1) [Unix]
      12. Written by Eric Edwards


      13. ??? (2) [Unix]
      14. Program:

    44. PDP-15
      1. Computer History Simulators
      2. See section 4.12.1.

    45. Psion
    46. Brace yourself, folks... we've gone beyond calculator emulators and clear into the realm of personal organizers. The Psion machines are personal assistants (scheduler, address book, spreadsheet, word processor , etc). They seem somewhat more popular in Europe than the States (the only one I've ever seen was from Switzerland, labeled in German, and made in the UK... although Psion appears to be in Massachusets.) See the Psion homepage for more information.


      1. S3AEMUL [MS-DOS]
      2. Psion 3a emulator for MS-DOS; this will not work in a DOS box under Windows. S3AEMUL was actually produced by Psion themselves, but they provide no support for it -- its original purpose was internal development only. No sound support is provided.

        The program available from the homepage appears to be somewhat more recent than the other two listed...



    47. R2000
    48. SPIM/SAL [MacOS]

      This emulation provides support for the R2000 and a few simple I/O devices. It is bundled with a debugger. Written by James R. Larus <>.


    49. Sam Coupe
    50. The Sam Coupe is a Z80-based 8-bit machine launched in 1989; it supports graphics up to 512x192 with 128 colors and has pretty decent sound capabilities. It appears to have an Amiga-like graphical interface. More information is available from the Sam Coupe scrapbook:

      1. XCoupe [Unix & X]
      2. A Sam Coupe emulator for Unix machines; available in source form only. The distibution does not contain Sam ROM images, for copyright reasons.

        The emulator runs about 1/4 speed on a '486SX with 4M or memory, but pretty much blazes on anything faster (like an Alpha). Features include memory emulation up to 512K with 4M external, graphics modes 1 through 4, line interrupts (including palette changes), disk controller emulation, support for reading real SAM disks (currently under Linux only), support for disk images, and mouse emulation support.

        An alpha version is available from the homepage.

        Written by Allan Skillman <>.


    51. Sinclair 1000/ZX81
    52. FAQ:


      Software Archives:

      1. Extender [MS-DOS]
      2. Timex/Sinclair ZX81 (TS1000) emulator for MS-DOS machines


      3. ts1000 [MS-DOS]
      4. Emulates a Timex/Sinclair 1000 on an MS-DOS machine. Can use printer.


      5. ZX81.PRG [Atari ST]
      6. This emulator comes with about 12 programs (some in assembly) which it runs just fine. It also allows the user to set the available memory (up to 48k).


    53. Sinclair QL
    54. (See also hardware solutions in section 6.8.)

      1. Q-EmuLator [MacOS]
      2. Sinclair QL emulator for the Macintosh. Runs on both 680x0 and PowerPC machines. Written by Daniele Terdina <>.

      3. QLem [Atari ST]
      4. QLem is a Sinclair QL emulator for the Atari ST. It is written compeletely in assembly. Version 1.40 (1996-Jan-20) is now available.

        This emulator is purported to run properly on the STonX emulator.

        Written by Johan Klockars <>



        QL to ST conversion utility:

    55. Sinclair Spectrum
    56. Most of the following programs that require ROM images have those images included. From what I've been able to discern, Amstrad retains copyright on the ROMs, but allows free use and distribution of them. If you need to obtain ROM images, several are available at the following site:

      Also, there is a newsgroup for information on the Sinclair machines; if you need to find Spectrum images, this should be a good place to start:

      And a homepage for the Spectrum:

      1. !MZX [Acorn Archimedes]
      2. Spectrum emulator for the Archimedes. Emulation is reportedly incomplete (cannot handle undoumented instructions.) Written by Graham Willmott.


      3. !Speccy [Acorn Archimedes]
      4. Spectrum emulator for the Archimedes. Allows tape file transfer through the serial port. Written by Karsten Witt.

      5. Atari-Speccy [Atari]
      6. Another Spectrum emulator for the Atari.


      7. Elwro 800-3 Jr [MS-DOS]
      8. Spectrum emulator for MS-DOS PCs. Runs in EGA, CGA, and Hercules graphics modes. All diagnostics have been translated into Polish. Does not provide a mechanism for reading tapes. This is a commercial product. Written by Piotr Schmidt and Piotr Wolter.

      9. Java ZX Spectrum Emulator [Java]
      10. Java. Yes, Java. No, I'm not kidding. Java. This ZX-Spectrum emulator runs under Java. Yes, in your web browser. No, really. It allows you to play 30 games and use Spectrum Basic all in your web browser. It supports loading SNA and Z80 snapshots from URLs. Currently, the emulator acts as a 48k Spectrum, with no sound support. In browsers which support JIT compilation, it runs BASIC faster than an original Spectrum. Some games end up being slower.

        Written by Adam Davidson <> and Andrew Pollard <>.


      11. JPP [MS-DOS]
      12. Spectrum emulator for 80x86 PC under MS-DOS. Requires 80386/25 or better. It requires a ROM image, but most versions have one included. Written by Arnt Gulbrandsen <>.


      13. KGB [Amiga]
      14. Spectrum emulator for the Amiga. Can read and write tapes though a digitizer. Emulation is reportedly incomplete.

      15. MacSpeccy [MacOS]
      16. Very slow Spectrum emulator for 68040 Macintoshes. Allows copying of screen to clipboard. Written by Danny Keogan <>


      17. MacSpectacle [MacOS]
      18. This is a freeware ZX Spectrum emulator for Macintosh machines. It runs on both Power PC's and 680x0's higher than '020. It requires Mac OS 7.0 or better and Color QuickDraw.

        The emulator provides single pixel to pixel-quadrupled display, exact speed and "as fast as it can go" modes, sound emulation, joystick support, highres graphics, and border effects. It works fully with .sna, .z80, .rom, and .scr files, and can read .tap and write .pict files.

        The current version, 1.8.2, provides emulation of the ZX Spectrum 48k and the ZX Spectrum 128.

        MacSpectacle is covered by the terms of the GNU license agreement. Use and distribution is free.

        [Note that the files at will not show up on a directory listing; you just need to change to that directory and get the files. If you have trouble, try getting the file //incoming/kio/readme]


        Source Code:

      19. PowerSpectrum [PowerMac]
      20. Spectrum emulator for PowerMacs. Runs at full speed with good sound emulation. Performs tape I/O through sound hardware (may require 44kHz hardware). Needs System 7.5 or higher to run. Written by Bo Lindbergh <>


      21. SP [MS-DOS]
      22. Spectrum emulator for MS-DOS PCs. Runs on CGA or EGA systems. Uses disk images for tapes. Requires a ROM image, which is not included. Supposedly, it works with the ROM image included with JPP (see section 4.34.6).

      23. SPECTRUM/VGASpec [MS-DOS]
      24. Spectrum emulator for MS-DOS PCs. Tape I/O is performed through the serial port, but no other I/O interfaces are supported. Runs at full speed on an 80386/25. VGASpec is a pirated version of this emulator, obtained prior to its release. All documentation is in Spanish. Written by Pedro Gimeno.


      25. SpecEM [MS-DOS]
      26. Spectrum emulator for MS-DOS PCs. Runs on EGA or VGA systems. Uses disk images for tapes.

      27. Spectrum 48 [Commodore 64]
      28. Runs on a Commodore 64. Does no processor emulation, so all it can handle is basic (no machine language). Emulates a microdrive with a 1541/1571.

      29. Spectrum [Amiga]
      30. Spectrum emulator for the Amiga. Can read and write tapes though a digitizer. Runs on a 68000, but a 68020 is recommended. Written by Peter McGavin <>.


      31. Speculator [Acorn Archimedes]
      32. Spectrum emulator for the Archimedes. Apparently, it is not currently available; pirate copies are rumored to exist, however. It is being developed by Dave Lawrence.

      33. Warajevo [MS-DOS]
      34. Spectrum emulator for MS-DOS machines. It uses tape image files for tape I/O simulation; support is also provided for loading tapes directly. This program can emulate the Spectrum 48, Spectrum 128, and Spectrum +2.

        This emulator includes a machine-code monitor, Turbo Copy, a built-in tape image management utility (including the ability to load tape images directly from a real tape), a built-in utility to convert Spectrum images to .EXE files for running independent of the emulator, and a Comm program for the Spectrum (to allow transfer of files from the Spectrum to the PC.) All of these features have now been incorporated into the emulator, and are accessable via a menu system. Mouse support is included.

        Enhancements for the most recent version include several speed enhancements, bugfixes, HP Laserjet support, Microdrive emulation, modular device drivers, support for undocumented Z80 features, and better configuration support.

        The documentation contains a full reference for ZX BASIC.

        This emulator is completely free software; it has been released into the public domain. Donations of any amount are accepted.

        As a side note, the documentation gives an interesting account of the development of this emulator during the war in Bosnia and Hertzegovina.

        Written by Zeljko Juric <> and Samir Ribic <>, <>.


      35. WSpecem [MS-Windows]
      36. Emulates an Spectrum 48k. Includes a utility to read Spectrum tapes via a soundblaster. Requires winG. This program is Shareware released under the Gnu public license. Written by Rui Ribeiro <> or <>.


      37. X 128 [Unix & X, MS-DOS]
      38. Spectrum 128 emulator. Written by James McKay <>.

        Unix Program:

        MS-DOS Program:

      39. xz80 [Unix & X]
      40. Emulates a Spectrum under Unix/X. Sound output provided on Sun Sparc using /dev/audio; this may work on other machines. Provides printer emulation. Will not emulate a 128K Spectrum. Written by Ian Collier <>


      41. xzx [Unix & X]
      42. Emulates a Spectrum under Unix/X. Provides varying levels of sound support for Sun Sparc, NEC EWS, and Linux workstations. Written by Des Herriott (formerly <>). Program maintanance and enhancements have since been taken over by Erik Kunze <>. See the homepage for mailing list information.



      43. Z80 [MS-DOS]
      44. Very fast Spectrum emulator for MS-DOS PCs. Can run on an 80286 or better. This program is shareware; some features are available only to registered users. Written by Gerton Lunter <>. Support and registration provided by B G Services at the address <>.


      45. !z80Em [Acorn]
      46. Mike Borcherds <> has written a spectrum emulator for the Acorn machines.



           Warm Silence Software
           St Catherines College
           Manor Road
           OX1 3UJ

      47. ZX SP [Atari]
      48. Another Spectrum emulator for the Atari.


        Old version of program with manuals in English:

      49. ZX Spectrum-Emulator [MS-DOS]
      50. Shareware; 29 DM registration fee. Written by Bernd Waschke. Contact him at:

          Bernd Waschke
          Postfach 657
          D - 15206 Frankfurt(Oder)

      51. ZX Spectrum [MS-DOS]
      52. Written by J. Swiatek and K. Makowski.


      53. zx-spectrum [Amiga]
      54. Emulation of a 48K Spectrum with Interface 1 for the Amiga.

        Written by Jeroen Kwast <>


      55. zxlin386 [Linux]
      56. ZX Spectrum emulator for Linux on an 80x86 processor. This emulator runs under both X and the SVGAlib. Written by Jean-Francois Lozevis <>.

      57. ZXAM [Amiga]
      58. Spectrum emulator for the Amiga. Requires a 68020 or better. Can read tapes with a custom-made adaptor.


      59. zxspec [Amiga]
      60. Another emulation of the Spectrum for the Amiga.


    57. Sinclair Z88
      1. Win Z88 [MS-Windows]
      2. Another Z88 emulator for MS-Windows. Possibly by the same author of Z88dream (see section 4.35.2). This one is reported to be much faster than Z88dream -- and it's a great deal smaller as well.


      3. Z88dream [MS-Windows]
      4. Sinclair Z88 emulator for MS-Windows. Now includes emulation of 128k expanded machine, instering virtual cards by reading application EPROM images, and saving files to the harddrive. Written by Jeroen van den Belt <>.


      5. Z88EM [MS-DOS]
      6. Slow, with no documentation.


    58. TI-81
      1. TI-81 Emulator [MacOS]
      2. Available from Texas Instruments for US$65. You can contact them at 1-800-TI-CARES for details.

    59. TI-99/4A
    60. Information on the TI-99/4A can be found in the following FAQ:

      Any further questions can be directed at the newsgroup:

      Various TI-99/4A pages:

      TI-99/4A FTP site:

      1. PC99 [MS-DOS]
      2. TI-99/4A emulator sold by CaDD Electronics for US$47 or US$94, depending on the version purchased. They also sell licensed copies of TI game ROMs and disks. (The ROMs should work with V9t9 as well.)

        It seems most of the development on this emulator has been done by Mike Wright <>.

        The current version includes an artist utility for Artist files, an overlay function (to show the functions of each function key), and a trace function.

        CaDD also has received permission to distribute the game manuals on disk with a custom viewer that renders the manuals like the original paper versions.

        More information, along with a list of ROMs and disks, is available from the homepage.



          CaDD Electronics,
          45 Centerville Drive,
          Salem, NH 03079-2674
          +1 603/895-0119
          +1 603/893-1450 

      3. TI99-4A [Amiga]
      4. A version 0.1 prerelease of this emulator has been released. Written by Ton Brouwer, ported by Stefan Haubenthal. No further information is available.

      5. TI99EMUL [MS-DOS]
      6. This program emulates a TI-99/4A on an MS-DOS machine. According to the author, it runs slower than a real TI on a 486-33; however, you guys out there with P5s should be just fine...


        Source code is also available:

      7. V9t9 [MS-DOS]
      8. From the author, Edward Swartz <>:

        "V9t9 is a full-featured (though NOT fully finished) TI-99/4A emulator which runs on IBM PCs and compatibles under MS-DOS. is a fairware product which does NOT have to be registered. The minimums required to run it are a 286 AT system with EGA. A 386-DX/33 is recommended for real-speed (?) emulation.

        "V9t9 v6.0 now supports noise, real speech, real RS232/PIO, disk images, three voices on a PC speaker, true keyboard scans, and demonstrations, in addition to the Adlib sound, full graphics, and speed that have always been in the earlier versions.

        "For legal reasons, V9t9 includes no TI ROMs of any sort, but comes with a transfer program that will move all the supported ROMs, modules, and 90k disk images from your 99/4A to your PC, ready for emulation."

        [Reposted with permission]

        Mr. Swartz has since become disgruntled, and will not be releasing or supporting v9t9 in the future. Source code is now available.

        It's worth pointing out that TI99EMUL (see section 4.37.3) includes ROM images; in order to use these, you need to make the following modifications: run the v9t9 utility "swap" on the rom.bin file. Call this 994arom.bin. You then need to pad the grom0.bin, grom1.bin, and grom2.bin files out to 8k; concatenate these to a single file, called 994agrom.bin. Place these new files in the v9t9 ROM directory. The only problem you may encounter is that the TI99EMUL GROMs skip over the video chip initialization code, so the two startup screens don't appear. The program below will pad and concatenate the GROM files.

        void main(){
          int i,j,x,k=0;
          char mem, buff[80];
          FILE *infile, *outfile = fopen("994agrom.bin","wb");
          for(i=0; i<3; i++){
            printf("Reading chip %d from %s... ",i,buff);
            infile = fopen(buff,"rb");
              mem = feof(infile)?(char)0:(x++,getc(infile));
            printf("%d bytes read\n",x);
          printf("%d bytes written.\n\n",k);


        Demo Programs (to run on the emulator):

    61. TO7
    62. The TO7 was a French home computer launched in 1982. Its CPU is a 6809.

      1. FunzyTo7 [MS-DOS, Unix & X]
      2. A TO7 emulator that runs under Unix or MS-DOS. The MS-DOS version supports sound. It has two emulation modes: "rigorous," which allows only 16k of memory, and "extended," which allows 32k of memory and use of 16 colors. The emulator includes several game cartridge snapshots, an assembler, and a BASIC interpreter. The DOS version requires dos4gw in order to run.

        The homepage and documentation are entriely in French. However, even if you don't speak French, you can pretty much figure out the installation and usage instructions by looking for the Unix commands in the README file.

        Written by Sylvain Huet <>.


        Unix Program:

        MS-DOS Program:

      3. FunzyTo7-70 [MS-DOS, Unix & X]
      4. A To7-70 emulator writtn by the same author of the FunzyTo7 emulator, above (see section 4.38.1).


        Unix Program:

        MS-DOS Program:

    63. TRS-80 Models I-IV
    64. A TRS-80 Model I ROM image is available at:

      A large amount of TRS-80 software is available (11pm-6am GMT -8 [PST]) at:

      A TRS-80 Basic reference is available from Joe Ganley <> at:

      Another TRS-80 emulation page:

      1. [MS-DOS]
      2. TRS-80 Model I emulator & support programs for MS-DOS machines. Written by Jeff Vavasour <>.


      3. TRS-80 Model I emulator [MS-DOS]
      4. Very small (~17k) TRS-80 Model I emualtor for MS-DOS. Developed by Paul Robson <>.




      5. TRS-80 Model III emulator [MS-DOS]
      6. Public domain Model III emulator. Currently, the program is in Beta. Written by Vincent Van Den Berghe (no e-mail access).


      7. TRS-80 Model III simulator [MS-DOS]
      8. Model I and III emulator. Includes source code. Runs full speed on a 80286-10. Written by George Phillips <>.


      9. trs80 [Amiga]
      10. A TRS-80 model III emulator for the Amiga. The emulator does not include ROM images, although a snapshot of "Galaxy Invasion" is included. It's currently in an early stage of development, and has known bugs (like keyboard emulation problems.) No documentation is included with the program. It appears to have been written in C.

        Written by John Fehr <>.


        Brief description:

      11. trs80_sit.hqx [MacOS]
      12. Written by Yves Lempereur. Includes a pack of games programmed by the author back in 1982.


      13. Xtrs [Unix & X]
      14. TRS-80 Model I emulator for Unix/X. Allows variable amounts of memory to be visible. By David Gingold <> and Alec Wolman <>.


      15. ??? [MS-DOS]
      16. Supposedly, work is being done on a Model I emulator for PCs by Ted Johnsen; you can send him e-mail at <>.

    65. Universal Turing Machine
    66. Alan Turing's famous Universal Turing Machine was the first recorded concept of using a programmable machine to perform well defined mathematical processes. In a way, it can be considered the conceptual father of all "computers" as we know them. Turing machines have some interesting properties, including the theoretical property of being able to simulate any system that can be described mathematically, given enough memory. This concept has been often applied to mathematically 'prove' that every machine can be emulated.

      Unfortunately, most of the emulators are named very similarly, so it can be difficult differentiating them.

      The Alan Turing Scrapbook -- Turing Machines:

      1. Turing [MS-DOS]
      2. A simple (and fairly limited) universal Turing machine program. The file listed below is a self-extracting archive. Written by Douglas Lynn.


      3. Turing Machine [MS-Windows]
      4. A computer science course project to implement a Turing machine. Written by David J. Matz <>.


      5. Turing-Maschine [MS-Windows]
      6. This program requires an 80386 or higher, 4 Megs of RAM, Windows 3.1 or 95, and the visual basic runtime library. The labels for this machine are completely in German. Written by Gerald Pienkowski <>.


      7. Turing's World [Macintosh, MS-Windows]
      8. Commercial package which includes a book on Turing Machines and more than 100 excercises to get the reader familiar with the concepts behind the Turing machine. Mac version by Jason Strober; Windows version by Christopher Fuselier. This program is funded buy CSLI.


  8. Game Consoles
  9. This section contains entries for game consoles; some information on console programming is available from:

    Other console programming information is available at:

    Also, if you're interested in using the original joysticks with these console emulations, you might find something of use at:

    1. Arcade Emulators
    2. Some arcade ROM images are available; note that, unless you contact the author of these games and get permission, you shouldn't download them. Whether you can download them if you own legitimate copies isn't something I know -- I'm not an expert on copyright law. At any rate, to cut down on traffic in the group, the site is:

      Many of the ROMs there are duplicated at:

      Arcade emulator homepages: arcade emulation repository:

      Code examples for developers are available at:

      1. Arcade Emulation Repository Project [MS-DOS]
      2. There is a project underway to program a suite of emulators for most, if not all, Z80 based arcade games. These emulators are based on Marat's Z80 code (see section 2.12.1). Currently, many of them are in very preliminary stages. They are all available as source, and include a compiled binary. You must acquire ROM images before any of these emulations will do you any good.

        See the homepage for more information.


      3. Asteroids Emulator [Power Mac]
      4. Written by Steve Green <>.



      5. Centepede Emulator [MS-DOS]
      6. Written by Peter Rittwage <>.


      7. Cinematronics Emulator
      8. Not yet finished. Under development by Paul Kahler <> and Kurt Mahan.


      9. Crazy Kong Emulator [MS-DOS]
      10. Crazy kong emulator for 80x86 PCs. Still under development; will run Donkey Kong when finished. Based on Marat's z80 emulation (see section 2.12.1). Written by Ville Laitinen <>.

        For the program, see:

      11. Emu [MS-DOS]
      12. Atari vector game emulator for the 80x86 machines. This version runs Asteroids, Asteroids Deluxe (with some limitations), Space Duel, Gravitar, and Lunar Lander. You must acquire your own ROMs to use this emulator.

        By Neil Bradley <>



      13. Gauntlet Emulator
      14. A Gauntlet emulator is under development by Suzanne Archibald <>, as announced in comp.emualators.misc on November 1, 1996. No other information is available.

      15. Gottlieb Emulator
      16. Not yet finished. Preliminarily runs Q-Bert. Will eventually run Mad Planets and others. Under development by Lee Taylor <>.


        If your DNS chokes on that:

      17. Gyruss Emulator [MS-DOS]
      18. Homepage:

      19. Kong Emulator [MS-DOS]
      20. Runs Donkey Kong and Donkey Kong Jr. No sound emulation is supported. Written by Gary Shepherdson <>. Based on Marat's z80 emulation (see section 2.12.1).


      21. Mr. Do Emulator [MS-DOS]
      22. Actually three separate emulators -- one for Mr. Do Run Run, one for Mr. Do Wild Ride, and one for Mr. Do Castle. Also supports ROM images for Mr. Lo. All the emulators require you to source your own ROMs. No sound emulation is currently supported. Written by Juan Jose Epalza <>.

        The ROM images for Run Run avilable from need to be renamed as follows to be where the emulator expects them:

          R1  ->  2764.P1
          R2  ->  2764.N1
          R3  ->  2764.L1
          R4  ->  2764.K1
          R5  ->  27128.A3
          R6  ->  2764.M4
          R7  ->  2764.L4
          R8  ->  2764.J4
          R9  ->  2764.H4
          R10 -> 27128.P7 


      23. Namco's Museum of Games
      24. No information is currently available.

      25. Pengo Arcade Emulator [MS-DOS]
      26. Z80 based arcade emulator which runs the Pengo roms. A Pentium is suggested to run this program. This emulator requires you to source your own ROMs, for copyright reasons. Written by Sergio Munoz <>.


      27. Phoenix and Pleaides [Windows 95]
      28. Requires Direct X. Written by Chris Hardy <>.


      29. Shinobi Emulator
      30. A preliminary Shinobi emulator is out. See the homepage for more information.

        Written by Thierry Lescot <>.


      31. Space Invaders Emulator [MacOS]
      32. Also runs under Executor (see section 3.7.2). Written by <>.


      33. Sparcade! [MS-DOS]
      34. This is a multi-game arcade game emulator; basically, it appears to be a 6502 and Z80 emulator with additional hardware modules added on. This allows you to load in various arcade ROMs into the emulator and play them. Currently, hardware support is provided for Galaxians, Frogger, Amidar, Space Invaders, Pacman, and many others.

        Due to the fact that copyright laws prohibit distribution of ROM images without permission, no images are provided with the emulator -- it is currently targeted at collectors who have stand-up arcade units already.

        Future support will probably include 6809 and 680x0 based arcade games.

        Written by Dave Spicer; send mail to the appropriate address:
        Video Problems <>
        Sound Problems <>
        General Problems <>
        General Comments <>

        For a long time, the program was unavailable; Dave had requested that it be withdrawn off the net after a particularly nasty incident wherein commercial interests *ahem* "borrowed" his emulator and sold it on a CD-ROM.

        Finally, a new version had been released. See the homepage for more information.


      35. T3 [MacOS]
      36. Space Invaders emulation for the Macintosh. Written by <>


        English Homepage:

        See also:

      37. Williams Arcade Classics [MS-DOS, Sony PlayStation, Windows 95]
      38. Digital Arcade has a Williams game architecture emulator available; it ships with Defender, Defender II, Joust, Robotron, Sinistar, and Bubbles.

        The system requirements for the PC version are an 80486/33 or faster, 2 Megs RAM (less if you don't want sound), MS-DOS or Windows 95, VGA graphics, and a 2x or faster CD-ROM drive.

        The Windows package also includes video clips of interviews, rare artwork, etc (this portion requires 4 Megs RAM, MS-Windows, and SVGA). The package should be priced at about US$30-40. Check your local software houses.

        The Sony PlayStation version was released in late March 1996. It may have some modifications to the game code -- there have been reports that, for example, the coin-op patterns for Pac-Man do not work.

        The newer PC version, optimised for Windows 95, uses DirectX for the graphics, has the sounds stored as .wav files (so you can use them as system noises), and a different control panel which allows enabling the Joust pterodactyl bug. It still has the old DOS executables on the CD-ROM, though, if you prefer to play them that way (just copy the executables over to your hard drive).

        An Arcade Classics 2 (the Atari collection) is available for the PlayStation ONLY at the moment; it contains missile command, centipede, battlezone, super breakout, asteroids, and tempest.

        The Williams/Bally/Midway homepage is at:

        Windows Product and ordering information can be found at:


      39. Williams Digital Arcade [MacOS]
      40. Very similar to the Williams Arcade Classics; however, only three images have been released for it, and they are all sold separately. Currently, Defender, Robotron, and Joust are available. Also, a patch is available which allows the Stargate (Defender II) ROM to work with the Robotron emulator.

        Digital Eclipse, the developer, can be reached at +1 510/450-1740. They sell the games for about US$8.00 each.

        The Williams/Bally/Midway homepage is at:

        Robotron to Stargate patch:

      41. Williams Pinball Sound emulator [Macintosh]
      42. This program actually emulates the 6800 that Williams used in the early pinball machines to make noises. No, you can't play any games on it or anything like that, but it's a neat concept. Written by Steve Hawley <>. The homepage includes a web interface to the available noises.


    3. Atari 2600
    4. Instructions on how to dump ROM images to disk are available:

      PostScript schematic to accompany the above document:

      There is also an Atari 2600 emulation FAQ:

      Several game and hardware manuals are available from:

      1. A26 [MS-DOS]
      2. Very fast, all-assembly Atari 2600 emulator for MS-DOS. This emulator isn't finished yet; it has preliminary support for mid-line collisions and cartridge bank switching. Versions after 0.11 have a speed regulator. Supports paddles, console switches, and rudimentary sound effects. It can use PC joysticks.

        The program (which is incredibly small) is available for download from the homepage.

        Written by Paul Robson <>.


      3. Activision Game Pack [MS-Windows, Mac OS]
      4. Activision has released three commerical game packs of old Atari 2600 games that run under MS-Windows and Mac OS. The games are images of the original ROM cartridges, being run on an emulator. The game packs include cartridge images of the following games:

        * Pack 1: Pitfall!, Kaboom!, River Raid, H.E.R.O, Chopper Command, Grand Prix, Boxing, Cosmic Commuter, Crackpots, Fishing Derby, Freeway, Frostbite, Seaquest, Sky Jinks, and Spider Fighter.

        * Pack 2: Dragster, Skiing, Tennis, Laser Blast, Stampede, Ice Hockey, Barnstorming, Megamania, Oink!, Dolphin, Keystone Kapers, Enduro, Plaque Attack, River Raid II, and Atlantis.

        * Pack 3: Checkers, Starmaster, Pressure Cooker, Private Eye, Double Dragon, Combat, Space War, Canyon Bomber, Breakout, Night Driver, Yar's Revenge, and Title Match Pro Wrestling.

        You can load other ROM images into this emulator; for the Windows emulator, this can be done by concatinating them to be 16k and copying them over one of the default images shipped with the action pack. Under MS-DOS, you can do this with the apropriate copy command:

          copy /b 4k.bin+4k.bin+4k.bin+4k.bin 16k.bin
          copy /b 8k.bin+8k.bin 16k.bin

        (Of course, you'd do 8 of the 2k.bin images...) If you have a 12k image, you should be able to pad it out to 16k by tacking on any random 4k image (ie copy /b 12k.bin+4k.bin 16k.bin), but I haven't tried this. If you get this to work, send me mail about it.

        You will probably want to edit the .ini file to tweak some values. If you have problems with sprite collisions, reduce the ActiveLineMask value (it must be one less than even powers of 2... ie 1, 3, 7, 15, etc.). You might also have to tweak CollLineStart and CollLineEnd to specify on which lines collisions should be checked.

        The Macintosh version will take images of any size without modification.

        See the Atari 2600 emulation FAQ (listed in section 5.2) for more information on how to tweak the action pack emulator.

        Activision can be reached at +1 310/479-5644 or 1-800-477-3650.


      5. Atari 2600 Emulation Project [MS-DOS, Unix & X]
      6. This project has been abandoned. Written by Adam Roach <>


      7. PCAE [MS-DOS]
      8. 100% Assembly emulation of the Atari 2600. Provides emulation of one paddle (using the mouse) and two joysticks, along with several other controllers. Requires an 80486 or higher. Supports Atari 8k, Atari 16k, Super-chip, Parker Bros., CBS, and M-Network bank switching cartridges. has a built in disassembler for non-bank switched cartridges and a debugger for all cartridges. Written by John Dullea <>.


      9. Stella 96 [Unix & X, MS-DOS, MS-Windows, PowerMac, Linux]
      10. Atari 2600 emuator for Unix & X. Screen shots are available from the homepage. The emulator is a work in progress. However, it works with most 2600 games. Version 0.4 is now available. The current release includes support for Linux (with SVGAlib), MS-DOS, Power Macintoshes, Unix and Windows (95 & NT). Version 0.4 is about twice as fast as 0.3 in most situations.

        Written by Bradford Mott <>.


      11. Virtual 2600/Virtual VCS [Unix & X, MS-DOS]
      12. Virtual 2600 is an emulation of the Atari 2600; it is covered buy the Gnu Public License.

        A v2.0 Beta of Virtual 2600 is now available. It includes some sound support, dynamic resizing (under X), paddle emulation, and PC joystick support.

        There is also a Linux SVGAlib version of the emulator available.

        The MS-DOS port (also known as "Virtual VCS") is maintained by Dan Boris <>.

        Written by Alex Hornby <>.


      13. VCS2600 [MS-DOS]
      14. 100% 80x86 assembly emulation of the Atari 2600 VCS. It's not currently released, but should be soon. Requires an 80386 or higher, although a Pentium is really required for full speed emulation. A Pentium 100 with a Mach 64 graphics card runs about 115% original speed. See the homepage for more information. Currently under development by Thomas Djafari <>


      15. ??? (2)
      16. Currently under development by <>

      17. ??? (3)
      18. Portable 2600 emulator; currently under development. (Announcement made on 1996-Feb-28 in The author also eventually intends to adapt it for 7800 emulation. Written by Joseph Jason Welser <>.

    5. Atari Jaguar
    6. See section 6.1.

    7. ColecoVision
    8. Sample cartridge images can be found on:

      1. ColEm [Unix & X, MacOS, PowerMac, MS-DOS, MS-Windows]
      2. ColEm is a portable emulator of the old ColecoVision videogame system written in C. The X version of ColEm has been tested under FreeBSD, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, and Linux. Ports to MacOS, MS-DOS and MS-Windows have been completed.

        Written by Marat Fayzullin <>. Macintosh Ports by John Stiles <> and Alan Steremberg <>. MS-Windows port by Neal Danner <>. MS-DOS port by Marcel de Kogel <>.


      3. Mission [MSX-DOS]
      4. ColecoVision emulator for the MSX. Requires an MSX1 (although an MSX2 is suggested) with 64K of memory and MSX-DOS. Available in both PAL and NTSC versions. The program emulates a ColecoVision by patching the OS ROM; this can be done because of the similarity of architecture between the MSX and the Coleco Vision. It works on about 1/3rd of all games that the author has tested. Written by Marcel de Kogel <>.


    9. GameBoy
    10. Instructions on how to dump GameBoy cartridges are available:

      Other technical information on the Gameboy, along with some public domain game images, are available from Jeff Frohwein's home page; this page contains pointers to TONS of gameboy related information, including a C compiler for cross-developing gameboy games:

      1. Fondle GameBoy Emulator [MS-DOS]
      2. Described as "Very Beta" by the author. The eventual intention of this emulator is to provide full support for multiplayer gameboy play over a modem. Based on the Virtual GameBoy source code (see section 5.5.6).


      3. !GameBoy [Acorn]
      4. Gameboy emulator for the Acorn RISC machines. Runs at full speed on an Acorn RISC 700.

        Dave Ward <> has hacked a version of this emulator that runs about 8 times faster, but can be slowed down to normal speed.


        Faster version:

      5. GBSIM [MS-DOS]
      6. Gameboy Simulator/debugger for 80386 machines and higher. This is more for technichally curious people, since it starts in a deubgger, and has features for disassembling and tracing gameboy programs.


      7. PCBOY [MS-DOS]
      8. Another MS-DOS gameboy emulator. Written by Yvan Rivard <>.


      9. ToyBoy [Amiga]
      10. Note that this IS NOT a GameBoy emulator!

        This program is a prototype that was designed with no access to the specs of the actual gameboy. It will not run gameboy cartridges, even if you get a good ROM dump.

        This prototype was developed by Argonaut, a UK development company, to determine how difficult programming for the GameBoy would be, once it came out. However, it is based on limited information about the GameBoy, so it has little in common with the real item.


      11. Virtual GameBoy [Unix & X, MS-Windows, Amiga, MacOS, MS-DOS, OS/2]
      12. This emulator will run GameBoy cartridge images. The Unix version is freeware and comes with source code. The Windows version is Shareware; a demo can be downloaded from the homepage, but a US$35 registration fee is required for a fully registered version. It requires a 32 bit library and WinG. The Amiga version is available with source code. It is playable on an A4000 with a fast video card. The Unix version has been tested on SunOS, Solaris, and OSF/1.

        There is also a Linux version of VGB that uses the SVGA library instead of X.

        A new version (0.8b1) of the MS-DOS VGB is available; it fixes a few bugs, implements sprite priorities, and has a few extra features.

        The current release supports using GameGenie cheat codes.

        Anyone who wants to help on this project is welcome.

        Written by Marat Fayzullin <>. The credits for the ports are extensive; see the homepage for a list.


        MS-DOS Homepage:

    11. Intellivision
    12. There are some complications in emulating the Intellivision; the first is that there are a set of ROM routines and bitmaps stored in memory on the Intellivision console itself. Of course, this information is still copyrighted by Matel. This "Executive ROM software" is, in fact, one of the stumbling blocks to development of a commercial emulator. To make the issue worse, very little technical information is available about the unit itself. Matel was hostile to other companies making games for the Intellivision, even going so far as to change the executive ROM to recognise and crash competitors' games. Consequently, there was no developer's kit ever released. Worse even, the "Blue Sky Rangers" (Matel's original design team) have been instructed to not cooperate with any efforts to create an emulator (since Matel is currently negotiating with a third party to produce a commercial emulator.)

      The upshot of this is that an independant emulator developer will have to reverse engineer the hardware as well as dump the executive ROM, reverse engineer THAT, and rewrite it. As mentioned above, though, plans are in the pipeline to release a commercial CD-ROM of an emulator and games (maybe even including some that were never released.)

      Some information can be found on the Blue Sky Rangers' page:

      The Intellivision FAQ can be found at:

      1. ???
      2. Development on a non-commercial emulator is being done by Carl Mueller <>. An announcement was posted to on 1996-Mar-18. Carl has announced that he doesn't know how to release it yet, since the EXEC ROM is (aparently) non-trivial to dump, and no-one has put together schematics for a simple cart-dumper yet.

    13. NES/Famicom
      1. iNES [Unix & X, PowerMac, MS-Windows, Linux]
      2. iNES has now been released. Due to the boatload of newbie gremlins that have come crawling out of the woodwork immediately after the gameboy and SNES emulators were released and discovered, Marat has made a decision not to release an MS-DOS version yet. An MS-Windows version is available an a registration basis only. More details are available on the homepage.

        Binaries are available for FreeBSD/80x86, Linux/80x86, and Solaris/Sparc. The Linux version also supports SVGALib access as well as sound and joystick support. Other Unix versions may be available; check the homepage.

        A diagram of schematics for a device to dump cartridge ROM images is available from the iNES homepage.

        An MS-Windows version is now available; you must register (for US$35) before receiving it. Contact Marat if you are interested.

        Written by Marat Fayzullin <>.

        For those of you who have cartridge images for PasoFami (see section 5.7.4), Marat posted the following directions:

          1. Create a 16-byte header:
                          this byte is either $01 for 16kB games or
                          $02 for 32kB games
             and call it, let us say, mario.hdr
          2. Do 
             cat mario.hdr mario.prg mario.chr > mario.nes
             You have the .NES file now.

        And Kerry Lee High Jr <> translated them to MS-DOS:

          -e 100 "NES" 1A XX 01 01 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00
          CX 0000
          Writing 00010 bytes
          C:\>copy /b mario.hdr+mario.prg+mario.chr mario.nes


        Linux Homepage:

      3. LandyNES [MS-DOS]
      4. The original 80x86 version of the NES emulator that iNES has been based on. A limited demonstration is available from the Damaged Cybernetics pages.

        Written by Alex Kravisky (aka "Landy").


      5. NESA [MS-DOS]
      6. 100% 80x86 assembly implementation of the NES system. It is very small and quite fast. The current version supports only 16k and 32k carts. It requires an 80386SX-40 or faster to run at any sensible speed. Written by Paul Robson <>.


      7. PasoFami [MS-Windows]
      8. The documentation for this emulators is completely in Japanese. It appears to require WinG, although a version is included. From what I can discern, it requires an 80486 and 8 megs of RAM.

        Unfortunately, the author has requested that the program be pulled from the net.

    14. SNES
    15. Some SNES programs are available from:

      1. Emplant [Amiga]
      2. See section 6.6.1.

      3. SPW [Windows 95]
      4. This appears to be the real thing. Although many SNES functions are not supported, this emulator is suficently complete to run Super Mario, Contra, Castlevania IV, Gradius III, TMNT 4, and others... Unfortunately, the entire setup, documentation, menu, etc. is completely in Japanese. There is also a version which includes some english translation, although it's not a perfect translation, and it's only about half done.

        The program is said to run in 8 Megs of memory on a '486. Preliminary reports are that it's pretty buggy.

        Unfortunately, the author has requested that the program be pulled from the net.

        !!!! ALSO NOTE that a version of this emulator, 1.4a, has been floating around on the networks. If you get ahold of this program, DO NOT RUN IT. It is a trojan horse; it removes vital files from your windows directory, and moves the remainder into a subdirectory called "X".

      5. SFEM 1.11 (Hoax)
      6. This is a package that purports to be an SNES emulator for MS-DOS machines. It is, in fact, a zipfile of the following programs:

          SFEM    .COM   MSDOS v6.0 COMMAND.COM (Italian)
          32BEXT  .DTA   Microsoft Mail for Windows 3.02 (Italian)
          DYNAMIC .DTA   ??? from Quest Development / SLR Systems (Italian)
          FAST32B .DTA   Microsoft Mail for Windows 3.02 (Italian)
          FAST32C .DTA   Central Point Video Routines
          LIBRARY .DTA   Bitmap (PBM) - modified with EXE signature

        [Thanks to Craig Jackson <> for this information.]

        These files contain the following copyright notices, which means that posession or distribution of this fake emulator is in violation of *at least* four different copyrights:

        (C) Copyright Quest Development Corporation 1991 
        Copyright (C) SLR Systems 1990-91 
        (c)1993 Central Point Software, Inc. 
        (C)Copyright Microsoft Corp 1981-1993. 
        (C)Copyright 1981-1993 Microsoft Corp Licensed Material 

      7. SNES 96 [Windows 95]
      8. Requires Direct-X. This emulator is in a very early stage of development. Has a 30-minute time limit. Written by Jerremy Koot<>.

        This project has been abandoned.


      9. SNES Professional [MS-DOS]
      10. Under development by Paradox Software <>.


      11. Virtual Magicom [MS-DOS]
      12. This program appears to be an SNES emulator for MS-DOS; it is in a fairly early stage of development, however.

        Under the current version, mode-7 is partially supported, and a VGA card and 80386 processor are required. According to the author, the emulator is about full speed on a 100 MHz 80486.

        Also, a small set of commercial games now run on the emulator, including Wanderers from YSiii.

        The program needs .SMC files generated by a console backup unit in order to function. (Note that .SFC files are the same as .SMC files; they merely need to be renamed.)

        Written by "The Brain" <>. Please don't bug him for ROM images.


        :Virtual Super Wild Card [MacOS]

        SNES emulator that runs on the Macintosh machines. It's not yet released. Written by Ernesto Corvi <> and Richard Bannister <>.


      13. XNES [Unix & X]
      14. A group-style SNES emulation project that got cancelled by legal threats from Nintendo. This is no longer active.

        It might be worthy to note that Nintendo actually has no legal foot to stand on in the way of shutting down this project; they just threw their weight around enough to worry the project coordinator into aborting the project. See appendix G.

    16. Sega
      1. SEGA-EM 1.01 (Hoax)
      2. This emulator is another hoax. While it does not seem to be malicious, it most certainly isn't an emulator. The file "" is a packed exe file generated by BASIC. The file "sega-em.ovl" is not a standard overlay file; it probably is pure trash never used by the program.

    17. Sega Genesis
    18. Miscellaneous Genesis information is available from:

      1. Emplant [Amiga]
      2. See section 6.6.1.

      3. EmulatorX [MS-DOS]
      4. This emulator evenually aims to support several different game systems; the first goal is to emulate the Genesis. Nothing is available yet. Written by Teego <>.


      5. GenEm [MS-DOS]
      6. Two versions are now available; an older, more stable engine that runs many games, and a newer, faster engine that runs only a few. GenEm requires a '486 and 8 Megs of RAM. See the homepage for a list of features. By Markus Gietzen <>. Don't mail him about ROM images.


      7. MegaDrive [MS-DOS]
      8. The current version of this emulator will not run any commercial images. Author unknown.


    19. Sega Master System/GameGear (SMS)
    20. SMS information is available at:

      1. Massage [MS-DOS]
      2. SMS and GameGear emulator. Written by James McKay <>.


      3. MasterGear [Unix & X, MS-DOS, Macintosh]
      4. SMS and GameGear emulator. Includes limited sound support, Joystick support (for MS-DOS version), and battery backed RAM emulation (game saving). Source code is available. See the homepage for more information.

        Also, Ian Spielman <> has written a couple of code patches that provide usability on 16 and 24 bit displays, and allow window doubling, tripling, etc.

        Written by Marat Fayzullin <>.


        Color Depth/Window Size patches:

      5. ??? [MS-DOS]
      6. Dave Spicer <> has announced that he has begun work on an SMS emulator. No other information is available.

    21. Sony PlayStation (PSX)
    22. Some PSX information is available from:

      1. PSXMooSim [Amiga, Solaris]
      2. "Very under construction," as per the author. Written by Jani Vaarala <>.


    23. Vectrex
    24. The Vectrex was a game console that was produced in the early '80's for abour four years. Unlike most consoles, it had a built in screen and displayed its graphics using vector instead of raster graphics. (Remember Tempest? Asteroids? Star Wars? Those are vector based graphics.)

      The game developers have given permission for the ROM images to be made available on the net; note that this is *very* *different* than releasing them into public domain. They are still very much copyrighted... you're just allowed to use them.

      Technical information and ROM images are available from:

      Vectrex Newsgroup:

      Various Vectrex Pages:

      FAQ list:

      1. DVE [MS-DOS]
      2. A production version of this emulator is available. Source code is available, so other platform support may show up in the future. Version 1.0 supports sound and screen overlays. Written by Keith Wilkins <>.


      3. ??? [MS-DOS, Unix & X]
      4. Another vectrex emulator is under development. Written by Mark Woodward <>.

  10. Hardware Solutions
  11. This section is comprised primarily of emulators which require plug-in cards in order to work. In most cases, these cards actually contain all of the components of the target system, minus some I/O.

    1. Atari Jaguar
    2. Information about the Jaguar is available from the Atari website at:

      1. Jaguar PC Card [80x86]
      2. There are rumors that Sigma Designs intends to develop a PC card which runs Jaguar CD software and acts as a ReelMagic MPEG card. It was supposed to be released in December of 1994, but no further information is available.

        Sigma Designs can be reached at:

          Sales:     +1 510/770-0482
          Tech Supp:  1-800-845-8086
          Sales:     +1 510/770-0100
          Fax:       +1 510/770-2640
          Sigma Designs, Inc.
          46501 Landing Pkwy
          Fremont, CA 94538

    3. Atari ST
    4. TOS ROMs can be purchased from the following suppliers:


      System Solutions

      1. Gemulator [80x86]
      2. There are two versions of Gemulator available. Gemulator 3.0 has been out for three years now, and runs on on a 80386 or better under MS-DOS. This product lists around US$100 in the US and DM 300 in Europe. Gemulator 4.0 was (supposedly) released around June 1995; it runs under Windows 3.1 with win32s, Windows 95, and OS/2 Warp. It will list around US$150.

        Both versions require Atari ST ROMs, which you install on an 8-bit ISA card.

        March 1996 saw the release of Gemulator upgrades, which include support for MS-Windows 3.1, MS-Windows 95, and MS-Windows NT. They also support a cable which allows users to plug 8-bit Atari disk drives and printers into your PC. See the homepage, below, for more information.

        This emlulator reportedly has trouble with games that use copy protection schemes.

        From Darek Mihocka, developer:

        "The web page includes a link to a list of all our dealers in the U.K., Germany, Holland, France, and Australia. People in those countries can directly buy Gemulator from those dealers in addition to buying it from us."



          14150 N.E. 20th Street, Suite 302 
          Bellevue, WA 98007 U.S.A. 
          +1 206/236-0540 
          Fax: +1 206/236-0257 

      3. Janus [80x86]
      4. Janus is a hardware-based Atari ST emulator. It includes a 16 bit ISA card with a 68000/16, TOS V2.06 ROM chips, and 2 SIMM slots (which will take up to 32M of RAM.) The emulation uses its own RAM (probably due to the endian differences between the processors), but uses the PC's I/O devices. The emulator functions in two modes: "dual mode," which uses the PC's CPU to assist the 68000, and "local mode," which uses the on-board 68000 exclusively.

        The program is available from VHF Computer GmbH (Germany):

        The program is also available from Edicta GmbH (Germany):

          Karl-Paff-Str. 30
          70597 Stuttgart
          Tel: +49 711 763381
          Fax: +49 711 7653824
          Pricing: 698 DM for a 20 MHz version and 898 DM for a 25 MHz 
                   version. They also sell TOS 2.06 ROMs for 80 DM.

        Can anyone get me the address of a North American supplier for this card?

    5. DG Nova/Eclipse
    6. See also section 4.12.

      1. The Hawk [80x86]
      2. The Hawk is a PC add-in card which executes the Data General Nova and Eclipse machines. It includes a custom bitslice CPU and has optional support for the original chassis I/O and optional hardware floating point support. Produced by Strobe Data of Redmond, WA. See section 6.7.1 for a mailing address and phone numbers.



        FTP Site:

    7. IBM-PC and Compatibles
      1. A2088/A2286/A386SX-16/A386SX-25 [Amiga]
      2. These boards were manufactured by Commodore. They required a Zorro 2 slot on the Amiga. They included a 5.25" drive, and had room to add another floppy drive and an appropriate 8087 or 80x86 math coprocessor. The A2088 included a 4.77 8088 processor, and the A2286 included a 80286-10. The 386 cards were capable of holding more memory. All cards included bridgeboard support.

      3. AtOnce Plus [Amiga]
      4. Mini-board with 80286 on board. Required the user to purchase MS-DOS. Produced by GVP.

      5. AT Speed [Atari ST/TT]
      6. A 286 add-on board for the Atari ST computers. Produced by Compo Software.

      7. DOS Compatibility Card [Macintosh, Power Macintosh]
      8. This is a plug-in card produced by Apple. The 680x0 version has an 80486SX-25 processor, while the Power Macintosh version has an 80486DS2-66 processor. Both plug in the Direct Processor Slot. The bios on these boards is from Chips and Technologies. The original board (code-named Houdini) came bundled only with MS-DOS 6.22, and lacked support for NetWare and Sound Blaster; it was later updated to address these shortcomings. The board for the Power Mac includes MS-DOS 6.22 and Windows 3.11.

      9. DOS on Mac [Macintosh]
      10. DOS on Mac plugs into the Direct Processor Slot and can use an 80486 at speeds up to 100 MHz. Optional items include ethernet and soundblaster support. The card starts around US$500. Produced by Reply corporation.

          Reply Corporation
          U.S.:   1 800 801 6898
          Phone: +1 408 942 4804
          Fax:   +1 408 956 2793

      11. Falcon Speed [Falcon]
      12. An 80286-16 on a board; it plugs into the processor direct slot on the Atari Falcon. Emulates VGA graphics.

      13. Golden Gate 486SLC [Amiga]
      14. These 80486 cards require a Zorro 2 slot. They come with 2 Megs of memory on the board, and can be expanded up to 8 Megs. All I/O is emulated through software. Supports CGA, VGA, and Monochrome graphics. Produced by Vortex Computersysteme GmbH.

      15. OrangePC [Macintosh]
      16. This is the original PC plug-in board for the Macintosh. Orange Micro, Inc. has been manufacturing these since the late 80's. The most recent models plug into both 680x0 and Power Macintoshes, and have 80486 uProcessors at speeds up to 100 MHz, 128 kb cache and up to 32MB on-board memory. Options include PCMCIA suport. Orange Micro, Inc. can be reached at +1 714 779 2772.

      17. PC286 [Amiga]
      18. These boards plugged into the GVP A500+'s proprietary slot. Included 80286 processor.

      19. SideCar [Amiga]
      20. SideCar was a A1000 8088 add on module which attached to the right side of the A1000. It included a 5.25" floppy, and supported CGA, MGA, and Hercules graphics. It was manufactured by Commodore.

      21. SunPC [Sparc]
      22. 80x86 card for Sparc Solaris machines. Can run MS-DOS and MS-Windows. Early versions of this product were software only, with an optional processor add-on; however, SunPC now requires a 486-66 card. See the homepage for more information. For 80x86 users, see Merge (section 3.5.8).


    8. Macintosh
      1. A-Max [Amiga]
      2. ReadySoft, the company which sold this emulator, neither sells nor supports this product; in fact, they may no longer exist.

        A-Max supposedly does not work well with the latest version of the Amiga OS.

    9. Multiple Computers
    10. This is a special section basically created for the one oddball card that is listed here.

      1. Emplant [Amiga]
      2. This emulator is produced by Utilities Unlimited. It emulates a variety of machines, including the PC, Macintosh, Apple II, Commodore 64 and 128, Atari ST, Atari 400 and 800, and even some game consoles, such as the Genesis and Super NES. You will need to acquire appropriate ROM images to use this emulator.

        According to my sources, this emulator does a good job of emulating the Mac II, IIx, and IIci, although it's a bit slow on its 80x86 emulation.

        You can contact Utilities Unlimited at the following numbers:

          Sales/Order:  +1 520/680-9004
          Tech Support: +1 520/680-9234
          Fax:          +1 520/453-6407
          BBS:          +1 520/453-3909

    11. PDP-11
    12. (See also software solutions in section 4.27.)

      1. The Osprey [80x86]
      2. PDP-11 on-a-card solution from Strobe Data of Redmond, WA. Requires an 80x86 PC; uses one ISA slot. The card itself holds an actual PDP-11 CPU from DEC. The Osprey is also available with Unibus or Qbus options. You can contact Strobe Data at:

          Jerry Kennedy, VP Marketing
          Strobe Data Inc.
          4320 150th Ave N.E.
          Redmond, WA 98052  USA
          +1 206/861-4940
          +1 206/861-4295 FAX


        FTP Site:

    13. Sinclair QL
    14. (See also software solutions in section 4.33.)

      1. QXL [80x86]
      2. QXL is a hardware emulator for the QL for 80x86 machines. It is a PC card with a 68040 and up to 8M of memory. Several variations of this card have been produced. The emulator is produced by Miracle Systems in Britian.

        Miracle Systems Ltd
        20 Mow Barton
        Yate, Bristol
        BS17 5NF
        United Kingdom

  12. In-Circuit Emulators
  13. In-circuit emulators (ICEs) are not really "emulators" in the same sense as the above programs. They are actually hardware devices that fit between a microprocessor and control board; they monitor the signals sent to/from a CPU. I would surmise they are used almost exclusively for hardware design debugging, although a really ambitious assembly hacker could probably make use of one for realtime debugging.

    Due to the nature of ICE manufacturers, this section is organised differently; the headings are individual ICE manufacturers.

    For information on ICEs, you'll probably have better luck posting to:

    1. American Arium P5 Emulator [80x86]
    2. From an ad:

      "Our LA/ICE has 128K real-time bus trace - cache execution trace & breakpoints - trace and cache disassembly - C high-level debugger - multiple Pentium analysis w/time alignment true 66 MHz emulation."

        American Arium 
        14281 Chambers Rd 
        Tustin, CA 92680 
        +1 714/731-1661 

    3. Applied Microsystems Corporation
    4. From the homepage, quoted with permission:

      "Founded in 1979, Applied Microsystems is a leading ISO9002-certified manufacturer and supplier of integrated development systems for embedded design. Our world-wide sales offices provide engineers with high-performance development tools, including CodeTAP(R) and CodeICE™ emulators with source-level debuggers, RTOS-Link™ real-time code debugging tools, NetROM communications gateway, and CodeTEST™ software test and verification tools. These tools help engineers develop products faster, more reliably, and at a lower cost."

      See the homepage for more information.


    5. Hewlett Packard
    6. HP provides ICEs for the following processors:

           Intel Processors
              186EA/XL @25Mhz       HP 64767A
              186EB    @25Mhz       HP 64767B
              186EC    @25Mhz       HP 64767C
              386DX                 HP 64789A
              386EX                 HP 64789C
           Motorola Processors
              68000 Family          HP 64744 and 64746
              68331/332/F333/336    HP 64782
              68340                 HP 64751
           Hitachi Processors       
              H8/532                HP 64737F
              H8/250                HP 64738F
              H8/534/536            HP 64739A
              H8/510                HP 64732A
              H8/300 series         HP 64784A and HP 64797A

      They also have Distributed Emulation solutions for Motorola PPC603, PPC603e and PPC860 processors. For more information, contact John Marshal <>.

    7. Huntsville Microsystems Motorola Emulators [680x0]
    8. Huntsville Microsystems markets Motorola processor ICEs. You can contact them at:

        Huntsville Microsystems Inc. 
        3322 So. Memorial Dr. 
        Huntsville, AL 35801 
        +1 205/881-6005 
        FAX: +1 205/882-6701 
        BBS: +1 205/881-7395 

    9. Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH [680x0, 80x86, H8, others]
    10. Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH is the largest European manufacturer of ICEs. They can be reached vie e-mail at <>. You can also contact them in Europe at:

        Lauterbach Datentechnik GmbH
        Fichtenstr. 27
        D-85649 Hofolding
        Tel. ++49 8104/8943-29
        FAX  ++49 8104/8943-30

      Or in the US at:

        Lauterbach, Inc.
        945 Concord Street
        Framingham MA 01701
        Tel. (508) 620 4521
        FAX  (508) 620 4522


    11. Orion Instruments, Inc. [680x0, 68hc11, 80196, z80, H8, others]
    12. Orion Instruments makes ICEs for almost 200 different uProcessors; they can be contacted at <> or:

        Orion Instruments, Inc.
        1376 Borregas Avenue
        Sunnyvale, CA 94089-1004
        Phone: (408)747-0440
        Fax: (408)747-0688


  14. Terminal Emulation
  15. This section has been basically discontinued. I will keep a few links to terminal-related sites here, but the sheer number of term emulators out there makes it impossible to keep up with. If you have a particular need, check out the links below; however, if you cannot find information on the net about a product that suits your needs, I'm sure you can find a solution at your local software vendor.

    Posts about terminal emulators should generally be directed to comp.terminals, not comp.emulators.misc.

    Brixton Solutions Homepage:

    DynaComm Homepage:

    You can get a full copy of EMU-TEK free for 30 days by calling 1-800-962-3900 (+1 714/995-3900).

    FutureSoft homepage:

    KEA Homepage:

    Mozart Homepage:

    Wall Data Rumba products page:

    TERMiTE Hompage:

    TGraph Homepage:

    Minitel emulator:

    ou, en francais:

Appendix A - URL Formats

A URL will generally look something like this:
  +-1-+  +----2-----++----3----+

The first section tells you what protocol to use to access the data. (ftp for ftp; http for WWW browsers, like Netscape; gopher for gopher, and so on). The second part (which is occasionaly optional, like for the mail: and news: protocols) tells which machine the information is kept on, and the third part gives an identifier (usually a path) for the information being referenced.

All the URLs in this document should work with WWW browsers.

Appendix B - DEC VTxxx Control Sequences

The DEC VT100 control sequences are based on the ANSI standard X3.64. Both the ANSI document and the DEC adaptation are available via mail order.

You can order the ANSI standard document X3.64-1979 for $13.50 plus $4.00 shipping from:

     Standards Sales Department
     American National Standards Institute
     1430 Broadway
     New York, NY 10018

DEC sells their VT-100 spec for $13.00; order document EK-VT100-UG-003 from them at:

     Digital Equipment Corporation
     Accessories and Supplies Group
     POB CS-2008
     Nashua, NH 03061

Below is an unofficial table of the control codes for the VT1xx, VT2xx, and VT3xx terminals.

From Robert Frank <>:

The folowing sequences are written within < > and using spaces for easier reading. DO NOT type the spaces or the < > unless they are explicitly given as "space" or "<", ">" respectively. The term chr(n), where n is a value of 0 through 255, denotes a character with that decimal value.

The letter P followed by a label (or just "n") stands for a numerical value (ascii digits i.e. 25). A parameter can be omitted, in which case it will assume a certain default value (denoted as D:n). If a sequence can take more than one parameter (given as p followed by a label) then the paramters are separated by semicolons (;).

mnemonic               7bit equivalent     8bit equivalent
------------           ---------------     ---------------
BEL (sound beeper)     <chr(7)>            <chr(7)>
BS  (backspace)        <chr(8)>            <chr(8)>
HT  (tab)              <chr(9)>            <chr(9)>
LF  (line feed)        <chr(10)>           <chr(10)>
FF  (form feed)        <chr(12)>           <chr(12)>
CR  (cariage return)   <chr(13)>           <chr(13)>
SO  (shift out,G1->GL) <chr(14)>           <chr(14)>
SI  (shift in, G0->GL) <chr(15)>           <chr(15)>
DC1 (xon (dev ctrl 1)) <chr(17)>           <chr(17)>
DC3 (xoff(dev ctrl 2)) <chr(19)>           <chr(19)>
ESC                    <chr(27)>           <chr(27)>
IND (index)            <ESC D>             <chr(132)>
NEL (next line)        <ESC E>             <chr(133)>
RI  (reverse index)    <ESC M>             <chr(141)>
SS2 (single shift 2)   <ESC N>             <chr(142)>
SS3 (single shift 3)   <ESC O>             <chr(143)>
DCS (dev ctrl string)  <ESC P>             <chr(144)>
CSI                    <ESC [>             <chr(155)>
ST  (string terminator)<ESC \>             <chr(156)>

Note: the 8 bit equivalents are only possible on the vt2xx and
      vt3xx terminals. They can always be sent TO the terminal
      but will only be sent FROM the terminal if in 8 bit
      control mode.

The columns 1, 1a, 2 and 3 give the availability of that
sequence on the vt100/101, vt102/131/132, vt2x0 and vt3x0
terminals respectively.

Control commands sent TO the terminal:

sequence      atcion                           1 1a 2 3
------------- -------------------------------- - -  - -
<CSI Pn A>    cursor up (D:1)                  * *  * *
<CSI Pn B>    cursor down (D:1)                * *  * *
<CSI Pn C>    cursor right (D:1)               * *  * *
<CSI Pn C>    cursor left (D:1)                * *  * *
<CSI H>       cursor home (top left corner)    * *  * *
<CSI Pline ; Pcolumn H>
              set cursor to line and column    * *  * *

<CSI Ptop ; Pbottom r>
              set top and bottom lines of the scroll
              region (lines 1..24)             * *  * *

<CSI Pn M>    delete n lines (D:1)               *  * *
<CSI Pn L>    insert n lines (D:1)               *  * *
<CSI Pn P>    delete n characters (D:1)          *  * *
<CSI Pn @>    insert n characters (D:1)          *  * *

<CSI Pmode J> erase in display: mode is of     * *  * *
              D:0 (or none) cursor to end
              1 beginning to cursor
              2 entire screen
<CSI Pmode K> erase in line: mode is of        * *  * *
              D:0 (or none) cursor to end
              1 beginning to cursor
              2 entire line
<CSI Pn X>    erase n characters                    * *

<CSI pattribute m>
              set character attribute(s)
              D:0 (or none) clear all          * *  * *
              1 set bold                       * *  * *
              4 set underline                  * *  * *
              5 set blink                      * *  * *
              7 set reverse                    * *  * *
              22 turn bold off only                 * *
              24 turn underline off only            * *
              25 turn blinking off only             * *
              27 turn reverse off only              * *
(<CSI 0 ; 7 m> will reset the attributes and then set reverse)

<ESC # 5>     single-width single-height line  * *  * *
<ESC # 6>     double-width single-height line  * *  * *
<ESC # 3>     double-width double-height top   * *  * *
<ESC # 4>     double-width double-height bottom* *  * *

<ESC 7>       save cursor position and attribs * *  * *
<ESC 8>       restore to saved values          * *  * *

<CSI 4 h>     set insert mode                    *  * *
<CSI 4 l>     set overtype mode                  *  * *

<CSI ? 25 h>  visible cursor                        * *
<CSI ? 25 l>  invisible cursor                      * *

<CSI 2 h>     lock keyboard                    * *  * *
<CSI 2 l>     unlock keyboard                  * *  * *

<CSI 20 h>    new line mode                    * *  * *
<CSI 20 l>    ine feed mode                    * *  * *

<CSI ? 8 h>   autorepeat key                   * *  * *
<CSI ? 8 l>   no autorepeat                    * *  * *

<CSI ? 7 h>   autowrap key                     * *  * *
<CSI ? 7 l>   no autowrap                      * *  * *

<CSI ? 1 h>   cursor application keys          * *  * *
<CSI ? 1 l>   cursor keys                      * *  * *

<ESC =>       application numeric block        * *  * *
<ESC ">">     numeric block                    * *  * *

<CSI ? 5 h>   light background                 * *  * *
<CSI ? 5 l>   dark background                  * *  * *

<CSI ? 3 h>   132 columns                      * *  * *
<CSI ? 3 l>   80 columns                       * *  * *

<CSI ? 6 h>   move cursor withing margins      * *  * *
<CSI ? 6 l>   move cursor absolute             * *  * *

<CSI c>       (primary) device attrib. request * *  * *
              response is: <CSI ? plist c>
<CSI 6 n>     cursor position report           * *  * *
              response is: <CSI Pline;Pcolumn R>

user definable keys (UDKs) on vt2x0 and vt3x0:

<DCS Pclear ; Plock | Pkey1 / Pstring1 ; ... Pkeyn / Pstringn ST>

clear : D:0: clear all keys before loading
        1: clear this key before loading

lock  : 0: lock the keys
        D:1: do not lock the keys

key   : numeric key value send in escape sequence of this key.
        see: "Control commands sent FROM the terminal"

string: string to send encoded as two digits-per-character hexadecimals

To download a soft character font for the vt2x0 and vt3x0:

<DCS Pfn ; Pcn ; Pec ; Pcmw ; Pw ; Pt ; Pcmh ; Pcss ; {
 Dscs Sxbp1 ; Sxbp2 ; ... ; Sxbpn ST>

fn : font number               0 or 1
cn : starting character (position of first character sent
     in character set)         0..95
ec : erase control             0..2
cmw: character matrix width    0..6
w  : font width                0..2
t  : text or full-cell         0..2
cmh: character matrix height   0..12
css: character set size        0..1
Dscs:define character set name <"space"../ "space"../ F>
Sxbpn: sixel bit patterns
       <sixel ; sixel ; .. ; sixel / sixel ; ... >

Control commands sent FROM the terminal:

sequence      key                              1 1a 2 3
------------- -------------------------------- - -  - -
<CSI A>       cursor key up    }               * *  * *
<CSI B>       cursor key down  }  cursor key   * *  * *
<CSI C>       cursor key right }  mode         * *  * *
<CSI C>       cursor key left  }               * *  * *

<SS3 A>       cursor key up    }  application  * *  * *
<SS3 B>       cursor key down  }  cursor key   * *  * *
<SS3 C>       cursor key right }  mode         * *  * *
<SS3 C>       cursor key left  }               * *  * *

<SS3 P>       PF1                              * *  * *
<SS3 Q>       PF2                              * *  * *
<SS3 R>       PF3                              * *  * *
<SS3 S>       PF4                              * *  * *

<CSI 1 ~>     Find                                  * *
<CSI 2 ~>     Insert Here                           * *
<CSI 3 ~>     Remove                                * *
<CSI 4 ~>     Select                                * *
<CSI 5 ~>     Prev Screen                           * *
<CSI 6 ~>     Next Screen                           * *
<CSI 1 7 ~>   F6                                    * *
<CSI 1 8 ~>   F7                                    * *
<CSI 1 9 ~>   F8                                    * *
<CSI 2 0 ~>   F9                                    * *
<CSI 2 1 ~>   F10                                   * *
<CSI 2 3 ~>   F11                                   * *
<CSI 2 4 ~>   F12                                   * *
<CSI 2 5 ~>   F13                                   * *
<CSI 2 6 ~>   F14                                   * *
<CSI 2 8 ~>   Help                                  * *
<CSI 2 9 ~>   Do                                    * *
<CSI 3 1 ~>   F17                                   * *
<CSI 3 2 ~>   F18                                   * *
<CSI 3 3 ~>   F19                                   * *
<CSI 3 4 ~>   F20                                   * *

key codes of the numeric keypad in:            * *  * *
numeric application mode    key
---     -------             ---
<0>     <SS3 p>              0
<1>     <SS3 q>              1
<2>     <SS3 r>              2
<3>     <SS3 s>              3
<4>     <SS3 t>              4
<5>     <SS3 u>              5
<6>     <SS3 v>              6
<7>     <SS3 w>              7
<8>     <SS3 x>              8
<9>     <SS3 y>              9
<->     <SS3 m>              -
<,>     <SS3 l>              ,
<.>     <SS3 n>              .
<CR>    <SS3 M>              enter

[Reposted with permission]

Appendix C - Emulator FTP Sites/Sources

This is a archive of many emulators; however, be considerate when you're downloading from this site. They're hooked up by just a T1; if everyone hopped over there and downloaded the whole archive, it would bring the connection to its knees. Currently has directories for Coleco, GameBoy, MSX, Spectrum, and TI-85:

Contains emulators for Commodore-64s, Apple 2s, TRS-80s, and Macs. [If this brings up a blank list in your browser, you may want to try a normal FTP program. Wilbur does not like ls -l commands...]:

Although this seems to be designed for Linux systems, most of the source code will compile for just about any Unix system. This site gets really busy, so you might want to use one of the mirrors listed below:

Mirrors of the sunsite emulator directory:

Mirrors of the SimTel MS-DOS emulator directory. SimTel used to be a public-access FTP site until it grew too large; all it does now is get mirrored. For a more complete list of SimTel sites, send an email message to <listserv@SimTel.Coast.NET> with only the following in your message: get

Simtel is also available from several web sites:

Contains most available Spectrum emulators:

Aminet mirror emulators directory. Many emulators designed to run on Amigas appear here:

The Aminet homepage is at:

Contact information for commercial emulator vendors:

Epic Marketing sells a CD-ROM with many emulators on it. You can contact them at:

  Epic Marketing,
  Victoria Centre,          
  138-139 Victoria Road,
  SN1 3BU,

  Phone: +44 (0)793 490988     

Appendix D - Related Documents

Emulation Software R&D WWW Page:

WWW Personal Computing and Emulation Homepage:

Emulation on the Macintosh:

Instruction-Level Simulation And Tracing

In French:

Many other emulator-related pages exist, primarily with lists of available emulators and links to them. Much of the information in these pages is duplicated between each other and with this FAQ, but they still provide further information you may find of use.

And, finally, something about GeoCities (which offers free space to produce web pages) seems to compel people to put up emulator web pages. Here's your selection:

Appendix E - Archie

The pointers to resources at FTP sites are almost never the sole place to obtain information. If you have trouble finding a file at a particular site, use archie to locate it at a different place on the net. In most cases, you should have an archie client on your system (type "man archie" for instructions).

If you appear not to have an archie client, you can telnet to one of the sites listed below and login as "archie" (no password). If you need further help once you log in, type "help" at the prompt.

Publicly accessible Archie servers, as of Mar 14th 1995:

             Australia     Austria    Belgium      Canada   Canada      Canada      Finland     France      Germany           Israel      Italy        Japan      Korea    Korea     Korea      Norway     Poland      Spain       Sweden       Switzerland      Switzerland    Taiwan    UK     UK     UK     UK     UK     UK     UK    UK     UK   USA (MD)         USA (NE)   USA (NJ)   USA (NJ)     USA (NJ)      USA (NJ)        USA (NY)

Appendix F - Comp.emulators.misc Charter

The comp.emulators.misc charter, for those who are curious:

Emulation of computer systems on another platform. Emulators which are not covered elsewhere in the comp.emulators hierarchy can be discussed here. Emulation of specific hardware by other hardware in the same system (such as Sound Blaster card emulation by the Gravis UltraSound card) generally belongs elsewhere.

Appendix G - Legal Issues

Invariably, the question of legality of using soft copies of ROM comes up in the newsgroup. For the exact nuances of how copyright law applies in your country, I strongly suggest you go to a local library and check out a book designed to explain copyright law to non-lawyers.

There are also many myths about the legality of emulators themselves. I'm not a lawyer, but I have read many books on intelectual property laws; based on the information I have gathered, emulation of a machine is completely and defensably legal, provided that no copyrighted information is used in the emulation of the machine. (The only other protection that could possibly be afforded is trademark protection -- just be careful what you call your emulators, and this one can easily be avoided -- and patent protection. If a certain aspect of a machine has been patented, you cannot even emulate that portion without paying appropriate licensing fees.) According to precedent, emulating a particular processor (based on known information) is legal (take the example of AMD and Cyrix making 80x86 compatible chips free of legal involvement by Intel) as long as it is done without copying the actual silicon wafer masks used to produce the chips. Emulating the interaction between a processor and other chips themselves is legal as well (examples abound; see below). Those two items are basically all that is necessary to create an emulator. If, however, the machine so emulated requires a copyrighted ROM image, operating system, or other programming, that copyrighted material may not be included. It can be licensed from the copyright holder, if they cooperate. Depending on the laws in your country, it may also be sourced from a ROM that you own (see section G.1 for the pertinent US copyright law).

Evidence of the legality of emulating machines can be seen in the fact that ARDI maintains a commercial emulation of the Macintosh without paying Apple any royalties (they have rewritten their own workalike ROM and OS -- see section 3.7.2); Insignia maintains SoftWindows (which works with a licensed copy of MS-Windows -- see section 3.6.6); and Sun maintains WABI (which relpaces the Windows API with equivalent X calls -- see section 3.6.9). An even more common example: while most computer users use IBM *compatible* PCs, when is the last time you actually sat down at an IBM *brand* PC? Yes, most the 80x86 machines out there are emulations of the original IBM architecture.

Many game console manufacturers do not seem to have a firm grip on the actual scope of intelectual property laws; more than one emulation project has been closed down due to legal threats from large game console manufacturers. They're wrong, but they're big -- so they tend to get their way.

  1. US Copyright Law
  2. The rest of the information in this section is aimed primarily at US residents; if you find any information on the net about copyrights in other countries, I'd love to include pointers to it.

    A good place to start would be Brad Templeton's "10 Big Myths about copyright explained." It is available at:

    You may find the information available at the copyright website of use; it's available at:

    Additionally, the US Library of Congress has a website that includes information and copyright forms; it's located at:

    On the topic of copying software for personal use, Section 117 of the U.S. Copyright Act states:

    "...[I]t is not an infringement for the owner of a copy of a computer program to make or authorize the making of another copy or adaptation of that computer program provided:

    "(1) that such a new copy or adaptation is created as an essential step in the utilization of the computer program in conjunction with a machine and that it is used in no other manner, or

    "(2) that such new copy or adaptation is for archival purposes only and that all archival copies are destroyed in the event that continued possession of the computer program should cease to be rightful. Any exact copies prepared in accordance with the provisions of this section may be leased, sold, or otherwise transferred, along with the copy from which such copies were prepared, only as part of the lease, sale, or other transfer of all rights in the program. Adaptations so prepared may be transferred only with the authorization of the copyright owner."

    This would seem to apply to copying ROMs for use in emulators (since it is arguably necessary to copy the ROM image as an essential step in the utilization of the computer program), but I'm not a laywer.

Appendix H - FAQ Archive Sites

All standard FAQs (those listed on the list of periodic postings) are posted usually not less frequently than once a month to news.answers; they are also archived at the following sites for retreival at any time:

North America:




If any of the above links don't work for you, please E-MAIL ME ABOUT IT and check the list located at:

Appendix I - Credits

Thanks to the following people for their information, without which this document would not have been possible:

Ron Zayas <>
Jonathan Badger <>
Paul Boddie <>
Byron Followell <>
Pascal Felber <>
James Cooper <>
John Wilson <>
Craig Jackson <>
Alastair Booker <>
Doug Salot <>
Marinos Yannikos <>
Craig Jackson <>
Hetz Ben Hamo <>
William Kendrick <>
Paul Burgin <>
Henk Penning <>
Fabrice Frances <>
Emmanuel Roussin <>
Kevin P Lawton <>
Filip Kujawski <>
Martin Gerken <>
Ewen Roberts <>
Tom Seddon <>
Kevin E W Thacker <>
Hans Guijt <>
Jean-Francois Fabre <>
Jim Cook <>
Bill Griffith <>
Alexander T. Smith <>
Tony Smolar <>
Wouter Scholten <>
Sunil Gupta <>
Guenter Woigk <asbach!!>
James Fidell <>
Michael Meissner <>
David Alan Gilbert <>
Ed Joseph <>
Michael Gueting <>
Carolyn Horn <>
Corne Beerse <>
Mike O'Malley <>
Jeroen van den Belt <>
Marat Fayzullin <>
R Ribeiro <>
Steve Hawley <>
Juan Jose Epalza <>
Andrew Cagney <>
Maarten J. van den Hoek <>
Bradford W. Mott <>
Jean-Francois Lozevis <>
"The Brain" <>
Carolyn Horn <>
Alex Hornby <>
L. D. Tonks <>
Kevin Postlewaite <>
Samir Ribic <>
Ryan <>
Adam Narrison <>
Michael Weigand <>
Keith Wilkins <>
Paul Robson <>
Fabien Tassin <>
Sebastien Brochet <>
Mike Mallett <>
Reece Sellin <>
David Linsley <>
Russell Schulz <Russell_Schulz@locutus.ofB.ORG>
John Marshal <>
Robert Federle <>
Erik Kunze <>
Yury Chebykin <>
Matthias Jaap <>
Matt Conte <>
Paul West <>
Douglas W. Jones <>
Chris Murphy <>
Raymond Ancog <>
Adam Davidson <>
Frederic Gidouin <>

Special thanks to Robert Frank <> for his list of VT codes.

Another special thanks is due to Jouko Valta <> for his extensive list of emulators and emulator FAQs.

Copyright 1995 - 1997 by Adam Roach. All rights not expressly granted are reserved.
Comments to